• G Renuka

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Particle diffusion and adiabatic expansion of plasmoids

      M S Sindhu G Renuka C Venugopal

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      In this paper neutral point (coalescence) instability (NPI) of plasmoids (PMD) associated with tailward streaming O+, H+ and e particles and diffusion region (spatial extent and particle life time) are studied. Also, radial and pitch angle diffusion studies have been carried out in the near-earth region (10 and 11 RE during substorm onset. Our study revealed that coalescence instability is favoured by a heavier ion like O+ and the time required for a heavier ion to reach from one X point to an adjacent X point is minimum. Near an X type neutral line (diffusion region) ions spend a fairly long time and gain a significant amount of energy. Radial and pitch angle diffusion studies showed that higher energy particles are largely confined near the reconnection region (near-earth region) and lower energy particles are rapidly depleted from the near-earth region during substorm onset.

    • Temperature mapping, thermal diffusivity and subsoil heat flux at Kariavattom of Kerala

      P Tessy Chacko G Renuka

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      We have studied the soil and air temperature characteristics over a period of one year at Kariavattom of Kerala. Thermal diffusivity(ks) of the soil has been calculated by range and lag methods and also from amplitudes and phase angles of first and second harmonics. The two methods lead to similar results. Diurnal soil heat flux and soil temperatures at different depths are modelled and found to be comparable with observations.

    • Ion acoustic instability of HPT particles, FAC density, anomalous resistivity and parallel electric field in the auroral region

      C S Jayasree G Renuka C Venugopal

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      During the magnetic storm of 21st March 1990, the DE-1 spacecraft encountered the auroral region at high invariant latitude at altitudes ranging from a few thousand kilometers in the ionosphere to many earth radii in the magnetosphere. The magnetic field perturbations interpretable as field aligned current (FAC) layers and the electrostatic turbulence possibly due to electrostatic ion acoustic instability driven by these currents are shown. The critical drift velocity of Hot Plasma Torus (HPT) electrons and the growth rate of ion acoustic wave as a function of electron to ion temperature ratio (Te/Ti) for low and high current densities and energy of HPT electrons are found out. The intense FAC destabilizes the ion acoustic wave and the resultant electrostatic turbulence creates an anomalous resistivity. The current driven resistivity produces parallel electric field and high power dissipation. The anomalous resistivityη, potential difference along the auroral field lines Vt|, intensity of electric field turbulenceEt| and power produced per unit volumeP are computed. It is found that the change in westward magnetic perturbation increasesJt|, η, Vt|, Et| andP. Hence HPT electrons are heated and accelerated due to power dissipation during magnetically active periods in the auroral region. Concerning, applications, such HPT electrons can be used in particle accelerators like electron ring accelerator, smokatron etc.

    • Variability of soil moisture and its relationship with surface albedo and soil thermal diffusivity at Astronomical Observatory, Thiruvananthapuram, south Kerala

      M S Roxy V B Sumithranand G Renuka

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      Continuous observation data collected over the year 2008 at Astronomical Observatory, Thiruvananthapuram in south Kerala (76° 59′E longitude and 8° 30′N latitude) are used to study the diurnal, monthly and seasonal soil moisture variations. The effect of rainfall on diurnal and seasonal soil moisture is discussed. We have investigated relationships of soil moisture with surface albedo and soil thermal diffusivity. The diurnal variation of surface albedo appears as a U-shaped curve on sunny days. Surface albedo decreases with the increase of solar elevation angle, and it tends to be a constant when solar elevation angle is greater than 40°. So the daily average surface albedo was calculated using the data when solar elevation angle is greater than 40°. The results indicate that the mean daily surface albedo decreases with increases in soil moisture content, showing a typical exponential relation between the surface albedo and the soil moisture. Soil thermal diffusivity increases firstly and then decreases with the increase of soil moisture.

    • Soil heat flux and day time surface energy balance closure at astronomical observatory, Thiruvananthapuram, south Kerala

      M S Roxy V B Sumithranand G Renuka

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      Soil heat flux is an important input component of surface energy balance. Estimates of soil heat flux were made in the year 2008 using soil temperature data at Astronomical Observatory, Thiruvananthapuram, south Kerala. Hourly values of soil heat flux from 00 to 24 LST are presented for selected days typical of the winter, pre-monsoon, SW monsoon and NE monsoon seasons. The diurnal variation is characterized by a cross-over from negative to positive values at 0700 h, occurrence of maximum around noon and return to negative values in the late evening. The energy storage term for the soil layer 0–0.05 m is calculated and the ground heat flux 𝐺∗ is estimated in all seasons. Daytime surface energy balance at the surface on wet and dry seasons is investigated. The average Bowen’s ratio during the wet and dry seasons were 0.541 and 0.515, respectively indicating that considerable evaporation takes place at the surface. The separate energy balance components were examined and the mean surface energy balance closure was found to be 0.742 and 0.795 for wet and dry seasons, respectively. When a new method that accounts for both soil thermal conduction and soil thermal convection was adopted to calculate the surface heat flux, the energy balance closure was found to be improved. Thus on the land surface under study, the soil vertical water movement is significant.

    • Influence of soil moisture content on surface albedo and soil thermal parameters at a tropical station

      Neena Sugathan V Biju G Renuka

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      Half hourly data of soil moisture content, soil temperature, solar irradiance, and reflectance are measured during April 2010 to March 2011 at a tropical station, viz., Astronomical Observatory, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India (76° 59’E longitude and 8°29’N latitude). The monthly, seasonal and seasonal mean diurnal variation of soil moisture content is analyzed in detail and is correlated with the rainfall measured at the same site during the period of study. The large variability in the soil moisture content is attributed to the rainfall during all the seasons and also to the evaporation/movement of water to deeper layers. The relationship of surface albedo on soil moisture content on different time scales are studied and the influence of solar elevation angle and cloud cover are also investigated. Surface albedo is found to fall exponentially with increase in soil moisture content. Soil thermal diffusivity and soil thermal conductivity are also estimated from the subsoil temperature profile. Log normal dependence of thermal diffusivity and power law dependence of thermal conductivity on soil moisture content are confirmed.

    • Estimation of soil moisture and its effect on soil thermal characteristics at Astronomical Observatory, Thiruvananthapuram, south Kerala

      M S Roxy V B Sumithranand G Renuka

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      Soil moisture is an important parameter of the earth’s climate system. Regression model for estimation of soil moisture at various depths has been developed using the amount of moisture near the surface layer. The estimated values of soil moisture are tested with the measured moisture values and it is found that the estimations are comparable with the observations. The variation of soil thermal properties with the amount of moisture in isohyperthermic ultisols has been investigated at a tropical site in south Kerala for the year 2008. The soil temperatures at 0.05, 0.10, 0.20, 0.30, and 0.50 m depths and soil moisture at 0.05 and 0.10 m are measured using the hydrometeorological data acquisition system installed at the observational site. For soil water contents ranging between 11 and 42% in the soil layer of depth 0.05–0.10 m, the mean values of the heat capacity, thermal diffusivity, thermal conductivity, and thermal admittance obtained were 2.2466 × 10−6 Jm−3K−1, 0.4238 × 10−6 m2s−1, 0.9658 Wm−1K−1, 2.1517 Jm−2s−1/2K−1, respectively. The magnitudes of the diurnal soil thermal parameters showed strong association with the levels of the water content. The thermal diffusivity was found to increase with the amount of soil moisture, up to about 22% of the volumetric water content, but fell as the water content further increases. Similar patterns of the soil moisture levels were noticeable both for the thermal conductivity and admittance.

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