• E N Rajagopal

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Cumulus convection and lateral boundary conditions in a limited area model

      E N Rajagopal S S Singh

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      Three versions of Kuo's cumulus parameterization have been tested in a limited area model to investigate their comparative performances. Results show that the version of Anthes produces better forecasts than those produced by other versions. To identify a suitable scheme of lateral boundary conditions for the limited area model, impact of two time-invariant and two time-dependent boundary conditions have been examined. The forecasts suggest that the time-dependent tendency modification scheme, based on large-scale tendencies obtained from observed data, is a better boundary scheme for the model. Furthermore, the forecast produced with the revised version of the model incorporating improved versions of Kuo's scheme and lateral boundary conditions shows an overall improvement.

    • Validation of two gridded soil moisture products over India with in-situ observations

      C K Unnikrishnan John P George Abhishek Lodh Devesh Kumar Maurya Swapan Mallick E N Rajagopal Saji Mohandas

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      Surface level soil moisture from two gridded datasets over India are evaluated in this study. The firstone is the UK Met Office (UKMO) soil moisture analysis produced by a land data assimilation systembased on Extended Kalman Filter method (EKF), which make use of satellite observation of AdvancedScatterometer (ASCAT) soil wetness index as well as the screen level meteorological observations. Seconddataset is a satellite soil moisture product, produced by National Remote Sensing Centre (NRSC) usingpassive microwave Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 measurements. In-situ observations ofsoil moisture from India Meteorological Department (IMD) are used for the validation of the gridded soilmoisture products. The difference between these datasets over India is minimum in the non-monsoonmonths and over agricultural regions. It is seen that the NRSC data is slightly drier (0.05%) and UKMOsoil moisture analysis is relatively wet during southwest monsoon season. Standard AMSR-2 satellitesoil moisture product is used to compare the NRSC and UKMO products. The standard AMSR-2 andUKMO values are closer in monsoon season and AMSR-2 soil moisture is higher than UKMO in allseasons. NRSC and AMSR-2 showed a correlation of 0.83 (significant at 0.01 level). The probabilitydistribution of IMD soil moisture observation peaks at 0.25 m^3/m^3, NRSC at 0.15 m^3/m^3, AMSR-2 at0.25 m3/m3 and UKMO at 0.35 m^3/m^3 during June–September period. Validation results show UKMOanalysis has better correlation with in-situ observations compared to the NRSC and AMSR-2 datasets.The seasonal variation in soil moisture is better represented in UKMO analysis. Underestimation of soilmoisture during monsoon season over India in NRSC data suggests the necessity of incorporating theactual vegetation for a better soil moisture retrieval using passive microwave sensors. Both productshave good agreement over bare soil, shrubs and grassland compared to needle leaf tree, broad leaf treeand urban land cover types.

    • All-sky radiance simulation of Megha-Tropiques SAPHIR microwave sensor using multiple scattering radiative transfer model for data assimilation applications

      A Madhulatha John P George E N Rajagopal

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      Incorporation of cloud- and precipitation-affected radiances from microwave satellite sensors in data assimilation system has a great potential in improving the accuracy of numerical model forecasts over the regions of high impact weather. By employing the multiple scattering radiative transfer model RTTOVSCATT,all-sky radiance (clear sky and cloudy sky) simulation has been performed for six channel microwave SAPHIR (Sounder for Atmospheric Profiling of Humidity in the Inter-tropics by Radiometry) sensors of Megha-Tropiques (MT) satellite. To investigate the importance of cloud-affected radiance data in severe weather conditions, all-sky radiance simulation is carried out for the severe cyclonic storm

      ‘Hudhud’ formed over Bay of Bengal. Hydrometeors from NCMRWF unified model (NCUM) forecasts are used as input to the RTTOV model to simulate cloud-affected SAPHIR radiances. Horizontal and vertical distribution of all-sky simulated radiances agrees reasonably well with the SAPHIR observed radiancesover cloudy regions during different stages of cyclone development. Simulated brightness temperatures of six SAPHIR channels indicate that the three dimensional humidity structure of tropical cyclone is well represented in all-sky computations. Improved correlation and reduced bias and root mean squareerror against SAPHIR observations are apparent. Probability distribution functions reveal that all-sky simulations are able to produce the cloud-affected lower brightness temperatures associated with cloudy regions. The density scatter plots infer that all-sky radiances are more consistent with observed radiances.Correlation between different types of hydrometeors and simulated brightness temperatures at respective atmospheric levels highlights the significance of inclusion of scattering effects from different hydrometeors in simulating the cloud-affected radiances in all-sky simulations. The results are promisingand suggest that the inclusion of multiple scattering radiative transfer models into data assimilation system can simulate the cloud-affected microwave radiance data which provide detailed information on three dimensional humidity structure of the atmosphere in the presence of cloud hydrometeors.

    • Impact of locally modified cloud microphysics over Tibetan plateau on the Indian summer monsoon


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      Tibetan Plateau (TP), a high elevation region in the Asian subcontinent, play an influential role in the Indian summer monsoon. In this numerical model study, sensitivity to the local changes in the microphysics over Tibet on the model forecast of circulation and precipitation over Indian monsoon regions is assessed. The local modification of the cloud microphysical parameters, riming, over TP is attempted. The simulation experiments have been carried out for different synoptic situations during the summer monsoon season. The riming gave differing responses in the two synoptic cases with the ice to rain conversion displaying a uniform distribution throughout the atmospheric column for the active monsoon case, whereas it is restricted up to an altitude of 8000 m in pre-monsoon case. The experiment over TP gives a 1.97% increase (0.54% reduction) in the all India rainfall for the pre-monsoon (active monsoon) case, which are mainly driven by the changes in the monsoon core zone. The maximum impact is found in Western Ghats rainfall with a 3.74% reduction (10.49% increases) for the pre-monsoon (active monsoon) case. Modulations in Tropical Easterly Jet and surface circulations in the experiments have substantial effect over the head Bay and the Western Ghats.


      $\bullet$ Tibet Plateau (TP) played a significant role in the circulation and precipitation over Indian monsoon region. In this study, the impact of locally modified microphysics parameters (riming) over TP is estimated through NCMRWF Unified Model sensitivity experiments.

      $\bullet$ Precipitation distribution in both pre-monsoon and active monsoon synoptic situation shows a different response with the riming modification.

      $\bullet$ The experiment gives a 1.97% increase (0.54% reduction) in the all India rainfall for the pre-monsoon (active monsoon) case, with maximum impact in Western Ghat region.

      $\bullet$ Current modelling approach may be useful for the different cloud observation projects.

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