• Dilip K Mukhopadhyay

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Deformational history of the Precambrian Kolar Schist Belt, South India: Constraints for the tectonic evolution

      Dilip K Mukhopadhyay

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      In the Kolar Schist Belt well-preserved small-scale diastrophic structures suggest four phases of folding (F1 — F4). The near coaxial F1 andF2folds are both isoclinal with long-drawn out limbs and sharp hinges. The axial planes of bothF1andF2folds are subvertical with N-S strikes; these control the linear outcrop pattern of the Schist belt. The later folds (F3and F4) are important in small-to-intermediate scales only and are accommodation structures formed during the relaxation period of the early folding episodes. Mesoscopic shear zones, post-F2 but pre-F3 in age, are present in all the rock types in this area. The F1 and F2 folds and the mesoscopic shear zones were formed during a continuous E-W subhorizontal compression. Available geochemical and isotopic data show that the Kolar Schist Belt with ensimatic setting is bounded by two granitic terrains of contrasting evolutionary histories. This, together with E-W subhorizontal compression over a protracted period of time, strengthens the recent suggestions that the Kolar Schist Belt represents a suture. This belt then marks the site of a continent-continent collision event of late Archaean-early Proterozoic age.

    • Structural and metamorphic evolution of the rocks of the Jutogh Group, Chur half-klippe, Himachal Himalayas: A summary and comparison with the Simla area

      Dilip K Mukhopadhyay Tamal K Ghosh Bidyut K Bhadra Deepak C Srivastava

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      The rocks of the Jutogh Group in the Himachal Himalayas and their equivalents elsewhere are now considered to represent a several km thick crustal scale ductile shear zone, the so called Main Central Thrust Zone. In this article we present a summary of structural and metamorphic evolution of the Jutogh Group of rocks in the Chur half-klippe and compare our results with those of Naha and Ray (1972) who worked in the adjacent Simla klippe.

      The deformational history of the Jutogh Group of rocks in the area around the Chur-peak, as deduced from small-scale structures, can be segmented into: (1) an early event giving rise to two sets of very tight to isoclinal and coaxial folds with gentle dip of axial planes and easterly or westerly trend of axes, (2) an event of superimposed progressive ductile shearing during which a plethora of small-scale structures have developed which includes successive generations of strongly non-cylindrical folds, several generations of mylonitic foliation, extensional structures and late-stage small-scale thrusts, and (3) a last stage deformation during which a set of open and upright folds developed, but these are regionally unimportant. The structure in the largest scale (tens of km) can be best described in terms of stacked up thin thrust sheets. Km-scale asymmetric recumbent folds with strongly non-cylindrical hinge lines, developed as a consequence of ductile shearing, are present in one of these thrust sheets. The ductile shearing, large-scale folding and thrusting can be related to the development of the Main Central Thrust Zone. The microstructural relations show that the main phase of regional low-to medium-grade metamorphism (T ≈ 430–600°C andP ≈ 4.5–8.5 kbar) is pre-kinematic with respect to the formation of the Main Central Thrust Zone. Growth zoned garnets with typical bell-shaped Mn profiles and compensating bowl-shaped Fe profiles are compatible with this phase of metamorphism. Some of the larger garnet grains, however, show flat compositional profiles; if they represent homogenization of growth zoning, it would be a possible evidence of a relict high-grade metamorphism. The ductile shearing was accompanied by a low-greenschist facies metamorphism during which mainly chlorite and occasionally biotite porphyroblasts crystallized.

    • A balanced cross section across the Himalayan foreland belt, the Punjab and Himachal foothills: A reinterpretation of structural styles and evolution

      Dilip K Mukhopadhyay Premanand Mishra

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      The Siwaliks in the foothills of the Himalayas, containing molasse sediments derived from the rising mountain front, represent a foreland fold-thrust belt which was deformed during the continued northward convergence of the Indian plate following the continent-continent collision. In this contribution we present balanced and restored cross sections along a line from Adampur through Jawalamukhi to Palampur in the foothills of the Punjab and Himachal Himalayas using published surface/subsurface data. The cross section incorporates all the rock units of the Sub-Himalaya Zone as well as that of the northern Lesser Himalaya Zone. The structural geometry of the fold-thrust belt in this section is largely controlled by three buried thrusts within the Sundernagar Formation of the Lesser Himalaya Zone. Two of these buried thrusts splay from the basal detachment and delineate a buried horse. Three thrusts towards foreland, including the Main Frontal Thrust (inferred to be a blind thrust in this sector), splay from these buried thrusts. In the hinterland, an anticlinal fault-bend fold was breached by a sequence of break-back thrusts, one of which is the Main Boundary Thrust. A foreland propagating thrust system is inadequate to explain the evolution of the fold-thrust-belt in this section. We show that a “synchronous thrusting” model in whichin-sequence initiation of thrusts at depth combined with continued motion on all the thrusts leading toout-of-sequence imbrication at the upper structural levels better explains the evolution of the fold-thrust belt in the Jawalamukhi section. The estimated shortening between the two chosen pin lines is about 36% (about 72 km).

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