• Darshan Singh

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Characteristics of spectral aerosol optical depths over India during ICARB

      S Naseema Beegum K Krishna Moorthy Vijayakumar S Nair S Suresh Babu S K Satheesh V Vinoj R Ramakrishna Reddy K Rama Gopal K V S Badarinath K Niranjan Santosh Kumar Pandey M Behera A Jeyaram P K Bhuyan M M Gogoi Sacchidanand Singh P Pant U C Dumka Yogesh Kant J C Kuniyal Darshan Singh

      More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF

      Spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements, carried out regularly from a network of observatories spread over the Indian mainland and adjoining islands in the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea, are used to examine the spatio-temporal and spectral variations during the period of ICARB (March to May 2006). The AODs and the derived ˚Angström parameters showed considerable variations across India during the above period. While at the southern peninsular stations the AODs decreased towards May after a peak in April, in the north Indian regions they increased continuously from March to May. The ˚Angström coefficients suggested enhanced coarse mode loading in the north Indian regions, compared to southern India. Nevertheless, as months progressed from March to May, the dominance of coarse mode aerosols increased in the columnar aerosol size spectrum over the entire Indian mainland, maintaining the regional distinctiveness. Compared to the above, the island stations showed considerably low AODs, so too the northeastern station Dibrugarh, indicating the prevalence of cleaner environment. Long-range transport of aerosols from the adjoining regions leads to remarkable changes in the magnitude of the AODs and their wavelength dependencies during March to May. HYSPLIT back-trajectory analysis shows that enhanced long-range transport of aerosols, particularly from the west Asia and northwest coastal India, contributed significantly to the enhancement of AOD and in the flattening of the spectra over entire regions; if it is the peninsular regions and the island Minicoy are more impacted in April, the north Indian regions including the Indo Gangetic Plain get affected the most during May, with the AODs soaring as high as 1.0 at 500 nm. Over the islands, the ˚Angström exponent (𝛼) remained significantly lower (∼1) over the Arabian Sea compared to Bay of Bengal (BoB) (∼1.4) as revealed by the data respectively from Minicoy and Port Blair. Occurrences of higher values of 𝛼, showing dominance of accumulation mode aerosols, over BoB are associated well with the advection, above the boundary layer, of fine particles from the east Asian region during March and April. The change in the airmass to marine in May results in a rapid decrease in 𝛼 over the BoB.

    • Aerosol characteristics at Patiala during ICARB–2006

      Manjit Singh Darshan Singh P Pant

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      The spectral AOD measurements have been made for the first time over Patiala during multiplatform field campaign ICARB–2006 using a Multi-Wavelength Radiometer (MWR) along with the suspended particulate matter measurements with a high volume sampler. Spectral AOD has higher values in May in comparison to March and April. The monthly mean AOD values at 500 nm are 0.26 ± 0.08, 0.36 ± 0.19 and 0.58 ± 0.20 for the months of March, April and May respectively. The mean AOD is more during afternoon in comparison to forenoon at all wavelengths. The atmospheric turbidity is higher in May and is attributed to dust transported by southerly winds prevailing during this month. The ˚Angström parameter 𝛼 varies between zero and 0.68 while 𝛽 ranges from 0.1 to 0.9. The columnar water vapour content ranges from 0.12 to 2.92 cm, having a mean value of 1.06 ± 0.648 cm. The mean total suspended particulate matter is 334.41 ± 97.56 𝜇 gm/m3, an indication of high aerosol loading over Patiala during the campaign period.

    • Short-term perturbation in aerosol characteristics over Northwestern India: A case study during Diwali festival

      Onam Bansal Atinderpal Singh Darshan Singh

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      The present study examines the effect of Diwali festival (17–21 October 2017; 19th October was the Diwali day) on aerosol characteristics over Patiala, northwestern part of India. Diwali being one of the major festivals of India that falls between mid-October and mid-November is celebrated with full enthusiasm by burning crackers, fireworks, etc. During this period, the study site also is engulfed with high aerosol loading because of extensive paddy residue burning emission. During Diwali event, a particulate matter (PM$_{10}$) concentration varies from 132 to 155 ${\mu}$g m$^{-3}$, while a mass concentration of black carbon aerosols varies from 6 to 9 ${\mu}$g m$^{-3}$ with the maximum concentration on post-Diwali day. Aerosol optical depth (AOD$_{500}$) was maximum (0.852) on post-Diwali day indicating the additional loading of submicron particles due to burning of crackers and fireworks. The magnitude of single scattering albedo (SSA$_{500}$) decreases to a minimum value around 0.864 showing abundance of absorbing aerosols on Diwali affected days (19th and 20th October). A sudden jump of +12.9 W m$^{-2}$ in atmospheric radiative forcing resulting in a heating rate of up to 1.4 K day$^{-1}$ on next day of Diwali shows the warming state of the lower and middle atmosphere.

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