• D R Sikka

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Some aspects of the large scale fluctuations of summer monsoon rainfall over India in relation to fluctuations in the planetary and regional scale circulation parameters

      D R Sikka

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      Year-to-year fluctuations of summer monsoon (June–September) rainfall of India are studied in relation to planetary and regional scale features. Anomalous epochs in the monsoon rainfall have been found to coincide with the epochs having anomalous patterns of temperature distribution in the northern hemispheric extratropics as well as with the spells of years having anomalous patterns of sea surface temperature distribution in the equatorial Pacific Ocean (EL-Nino phenomenon).

      Relationship between monsoonal rainfall and regional atmospheric circulation features is studied by compositing data of five good and five bad monsoon rainfall years over India. A comparison of the two data sets yields interesting relationships between the anomalous patterns of rainfall on the one hand and atmospheric parameters on the other. On the average parameters of monsoon depressions are more or less the same among the two types of composites. The most important distinguishing feature of good monsoon years is the greater frequency of cyclogenesis (monsoon lows included) on the regional scale which keeps the monsoon trough near its normal position and with concomitant higher cyclonic vorticity in the trough zone contributes to greater seasonal rainfall on the regional scale during good monsoon years.

    • Sub-seasonal scale fluctuations of theITCZ over the Indo-Pacific region during the summer monsoon season. Part I: Features over the Indian region

      D R Sikka D K Paul V R Deshpande V R Mujumdar P V Puranik

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      Monex-79 andISMEX-73 data have been analysed to study the sub-seasonal scale fluctuation of near equatorial oceanic intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) over the North Indian ocean during the summer monsoon of 1979 and 1973. The oceanicITCZ is characterised by a narrow shear zone between the equatorial westerlies and the tropical easterlies, associated with organised convective clouds. Synoptic analysis presented in this paper shows the steady northward propagation of the oceanicITCZ from its near equatorial position (5–10°N) to the continental position (20–25°N) during the onset and mid-season revivals of monsoon after breaks. The northward propagation is initiated by the strengthening of the equatorial westerlies which result in the intensification of the shear zone and the embedded disturbances. The establishment of the northward propagating mode near normal monsoon trough position over the continent characterises the active phase of monsoon. As the monsoon cycles from active to weak/break phase, the monsoon trough (continentalITCZ) dissipates near the foothills of the Himalayas and the oceanicITCZ gets emphasised once again near the equatorial region. The major phase changes in theITCZ occur at an interval of about 30–50 days which dominantly control the intra-seasonal fluctuation of the Indian summer monsoon. The paper also discusses the characteristic features of the oceanicITCZ during different phases of the monsoon.

    • Genesis of the monsoon trough boundary layer experiment (MONTBLEX)

      D R Sikka R Narasimha

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      This paper sets out the motivation for carrying out an observational experiment on the atmospheric boundary layer along the monsoon trough, in the light of earlier studies of the atmospheric boundary layer in India and elsewhere, and the significant role that the trough has been shown to play as a key semi-permanent feature of the southwest monsoon. The scientific objectives of the experiment are set out, and its planning and execution are touched upon. Some of the gains resulting from the experiment are mentioned, and lessons for the future about the conduct of such programmes are drawn.

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