Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Estimation of earthquake source parameters in the Kachchh seismic zone, Gujarat, India, using three component S-wave spectra

      Durgada Nagamani Prantik Mandal

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      Earthquake source parameters and crustal $Q_{0}$ values for the 138 selected local events of ($\hbox {M}_{\mathrm{w}}{:}2.5{-}4.4$) the 2001 Bhuj earthquake sequence have been computed through inversion modelling of S-waves from three-component broadband seismometer data. SEISAN software has been used to locate the identified local earthquakes, which were recorded at least three or more stations of the Kachchh seismological network. Three component spectra of S-wave are being inverted by using the Levenberg–Marquardt non-linear inversion technique, wherein the inversion scheme is formulated based on $\omega ^{2}$ source model. SAC Software (seismic analysis code) is being utilized for calculating three-component displacement and velocity spectra of S-wave. The displacement spectra are used for estimating corner frequency (in Hz) and long period spectral level (in nm-s). These two parameters play a key role in estimating earthquake source parameters. The crustal ${Q}_{0}$ values have been computed simultaneously for each component of three-component broadband seismograph. The estimated seismic moment (M0) and source radius (r) using S-wave spectra range from 7.03E+12 to 5.36E+15 N-m and 178.56 to 565.21 m, respectively. The corner frequencies for S-wave vary from 3.025 to 7.425 Hz. We also estimated the radiated energy ($E_{S}$) using velocity spectra, which is varying from 2.76E+06 to 4.07E+11 Joules. The estimated apparent stress drop and static stress drop values range from 0.01 to 2.56 and 0.53 to 36.79 MPa, respectively. Our study also reveals that estimated $Q_{0}$ values vary from 119.0 to 7229.5, with an average $Q_{0}$ value of 701. Another important parameter, by which the earthquake rupture process can be recognized, is Zuniga parameter. It suggests that most of the Kachchh events follow the frictional overshoot model. Our estimated static stress drop values are higher than the apparent stress drop values. And the stress drop values are quite larger for intraplate earthquakes than the interplate earthquakes.

    • Ambient noise and earthquake HVSR modelling for site characterization in southern mainland, Gujarat


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      This study provides the assessment of site characterization and possible shallow shear-velocity structure from the study of the horizontal to vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) measurements using the ambient noise or microtremor (herein called classical HVSR), extracted Rayleigh wave from the ambient noise data (herein called standard HVSR) and earthquake (herein called earthquake HVSR) data at five stations in the Surat district of mainland Gujarat, India. These locations are the hub of many mining and industrial projects like oil and natural gas, which need to function safely within the seismic hazard and ground shaking limits. From the classical and standard HVSR datasets, estimates of the predominant resonant frequency of the soil are obtained, observed to be well matched, from which first order inversions are carried out around the predominant frequency to provide a fair estimate of thickness of the regimented layer over a hard seismic substratum up to a depth of 100 m. In the standard HVSR datasets, the Rayleigh wave ellipticity curves are extracted with time–frequency analysis using continuous wavelet transforms. This is followed by the Rayleigh wave ellipticity inversion approach to derive a first order approximate sedimentary shear velocity structure. We also compute HVSR measurements using earthquakes. The noise and earthquake HVSR curves are well-matched in terms of the predominant frequencies and range from 3.8 to 16.7 Hz and 3.2 to 16.5, respectively. The estimated V$_{\rm{S30}}$ values (the average shear wave velocity (V$_{\rm{S}}$) for the top 30 m of the soil) vary from 520 to 1350 m/s, matching well with some of the geotechnical studies conducted here. The study emphasizes the effectiveness of the single station HVSR method in determination of hitherto unknown soil structures as economical and non-invasive exploration viability and proving quite useful for critical centres of industrial establishments.

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