• D Mukhopadhyay

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Foreword

      K Naha S K Ghosh D Mukhopadhyay

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    • Structural studies and their bearing on the Early Precambrian history of the Dharwar tectonic province, southern India

      K Naha R Srinivasan D Mukhopadhyay

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      In the Dharwar tectonic province, the Peninsular Gneiss was considered to mark an event separating the deposition of the older supracrustal Sargur Group and the younger supracrustal Dharwar Supergroup. Compelling evidence for the evolution of the Peninsular Gneiss, a polyphase migmatite, spanning over almost a billion years from 3500 Ma to 2500 Ma negates a stratigraphic status for this complex, so that the decisive argument for separating the older and younger supracrustal groups loses its basis. Correlatable sequence of superposed folding in all the supracrustal rocks, the Peninsular Gneiss and the banded granulites, indicate that the gneiss ‘basement’ deformed in a ductile manner along with the cover rocks. An angular unconformity between the Sargur Group and the Dharwar Super-group, suggested from some areas in recent years, has been shown to be untenable on the basis of detailed studies, A number of small enclaves distributed throughout the gneissic terrane, with an earlier deformational, metamorphic and migmatitic history, provide the only clue to the oldest component which has now been extensively reworked.

    • Relative contributions of crust and mantle to the origin of the Bijli Rhyolite in a palaeoproterozoic bimodal volcanic sequence (Dongargarh Group), central India

      S Sensarma S Hoernes D Mukhopadhyay

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      New mineralogical, bulk chemical and oxygen isotope data on the Palaeoproterozoic Bijli Rhyolite, the basal unit of a bimodal volcanic sequence (Dongargarh Group) in central India, and one of the most voluminous silicic volcanic expressions in the Indian Shield, are presented. The Bijli Rhyolite can be recognized as a poorly sorted pyroclastic deposit, and comprises of phenocrystic K-feldspar + albite ± anorthoclase set in fine-grained micro-fragmental matrix of quartz-feldspar-sericite-chlorite-iron-oxide ± calcite. The rocks are largely metaluminous with high SiO2, Na2O + K2O, Fe/Mg, Ga/Al, Zr, Ta, Sn, Y, REE and low CaO, Ba, Sr contents; the composition points to an ‘A-type granite’ melt. The rocks show negative Cs-, Sr-, Eu- and Ti- anomalies with incompatible element concentrations 2–3 times more than the upper continental crust (UCC). LREE is high (La/Yb ∼ 20) and HREE 20–30 times chondritic. δ18Owhole-rock varies between 4.4 and 7.8‰ (mean 5.87±1.26‰).

      The Bijli melt is neither formed by fractionation of a basaltic magma, nor does it represent a fractionated crustal melt. It is shown that the mantle-derived high temperature basaltic komatiitic melts/high Mg basalts triggered crustal melting, and interacted predominantly with deep crust compositionally similar to the Average Archaean Granulite (AAG), and a shallower crustal component with low CaO and Al2O3 to give rise to the hybrid Bijli melts. Geochemical mass balance suggests that ∼ 30% partial melting of AAG under anhydrous condition, instead of the upper continental crust (UCC) including the Amgaon granitoid gneiss reported from the area, better matches the trace element concentrations in the rocks. The similar Ta/Th of the rhyolites (0.060) and average granulite (0.065) vs. UCC (0.13) also support a deep crustal protolith. Variable contributions of crust and mantle, and action of hydrothermal fluid are attributed for the spread in δ18Owhole-rock values. The fast eruption of high temperature (∼ 900°C) rhyolitic melts suggests a rapid drop in pressure of melting related to decompression in an extensional setting.

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