Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Two contrasting summer monsoon seasons in the recent past decade: An observational study


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      India experienced two extreme summer monsoons, 2007 (active monsoon) and 2009 (weak monsoon) in the recent past decade. The characteristic features of these two contrasting Indian summer monsoons have been presented. The country received 11.8% excess and 17.1% deficit rainfall during 2007 and 2009 monsoon seasons, respectively. These large deviations in rainfall encourage us to study the influence of meteorological factors on rainfall activity. The distributions of rainfall over India, latent heat flux, wind, Vertically Integrated Moisture Transport (VIMT), and Vertically Integrated Moisture Divergence (VIMD) values in the layer 1000–300 hPa for the domain, 0$^{\circ}$–40$^{\circ}$N, 40$^{\circ}$–120$^{\circ}$E in the two contrasting monsoon seasons are evaluated. In active monsoon, (i) predominant low level southwesterly flow over the Arabian sea and deflection of winds over the Bay of Bengal, strengthening of the tropical easterly jet stream, wide area extent of easterlies in the upper troposphere, the maximum strength of easterlies in the upper troposphere (150 hPa) is observed over the area around 10$^{\circ}$–15$^{\circ}$N and 70$^{\circ}$–75$^{\circ}$E; (ii) position of subtropical ridge is more northward, i.e., 32$^{\circ}$N; (iii) a predominant moisture transport in the layer 1000–300 hPa from Southern Hemisphere, Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal to the Indian mainland, westward/northward transport of moisture and area coverage of larger quantum of moisture flux is seen; and (iv) India experienced more number of mesoscale systems. The reverse is true for weak monsoon. Positive (neutral) Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and La-Nina (El-Nino) conditions lead to active (poor) summer monsoon conditions over India in 2007 (2009) year.


      $\bullet$ The inter-annual variations in summer monsoon rainfall over India exhibited two extreme summer monsoons 2007 (active) and 2009 (weak) during recent past decade, 2001–2010.

      $\bullet$ Dominant lower and upper tropospheric circulations over monsoon region are evident in the active monsoon.

      $\bullet$ The incursion of subtropical westerlies in the mid as well as upper troposphere inhibits the rainfall activity over India in the weak monsoon season.

      $\bullet$ A predominant moisture transport from the surrounding oceanic area as well as Southern Hemisphere to Indian mainland is seen in the active monsoon.

      $\bullet$ The moisture divergence over the surrounding oceanic area is high in active monsoon.

    • Influence of river inflow and its impact on the salinity variations and flushing time in a networked system, northwest coast of India


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      A numerical hydrodynamic modelling study has been implemented based on the seasonal salinity variations in a networked system (comprising creek and an estuary), which is the first of its kind attempted for the Indian subcontinent. Salinity variations in the estuaries and creeks exhibited unique characteristics caused by the combined effects of various external forces such as tidal flow, freshwater runoff, wind and geometric effects. Precise understanding of dynamical conditions in estuaries and creeks is necessary to address pertinent issues related to oceanography, water quality and ecosystem dynamics. In a broader perspective, it is noted that due to the influence of winds during monsoon, the salinity fields in the estuarine environment are not in a steady state. However, in creeks, tidal Cow plays a major role in altering the salinity structure apart from runoff. The results from this study decipher the fact that the networked system was vertically homogenous during all seasons. However, a horizontal salinity gradient was observed in the system depending on the river runoff. The flushing time for the Ulhas estuary was about 1.5 and 2.57 days during the monsoon and non-monsoon seasons, respectively. Similarly, for the Thane creek, tide-driven flushing time was about 3.68 days. The low flushing time during the wet season provides a suitable dynamic environment for effluent discharge in the mid and upstream reaches of the estuary, wherein the freshwater influx is higher. On the contrary, during the dry season over this region, the low runoff and the highest flushing times can increase the pollution or can support the growth of phytoplankton biomass accumulation.

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