• C BALAJI

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Retrieval of humidity and temperature profiles over the oceans from INSAT 3D satellite radiances

      C Krishnamoorthy Deo Kumar C Balaji

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      In this study, retrieval of temperature and humidity profiles of atmosphere from INSAT 3D-observed radiances has been accomplished. As the first step, a fast forward radiative transfer model using an Artificial neural network has been developed and it was proven to be highly effective, giving a correlationcoefficient of 0.97. In order to develop this, a diverse set of physics-based clear sky profiles of pressure (P), temperature (T) and specific humidity (q) has been developed. The developed database was further used for geophysical retrieval experiments in two different frameworks, namely, an ANN and Bayesianestimation. The neural network retrievals were performed for three different cases, viz., temperature only retrieval, humidity only retrieval and combined retrieval. The temperature/humidity only ANN retrievals were found superior to combined retrieval using an ANN. Furthermore, Bayesian estimation showed superior results when compared with the combined ANN retrievals.

    • A sensitivity study of WRF model microphysics and cumulus parameterization schemes for the simulation of tropical cyclones using GPM radar data

      HARISH BAKI SANDEEP CHINTA C BALAJI BALAJI SRINIVASAN

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      The present study focuses on determining the best combination of microphysics (MP) and cumulus parameterization (CP) schemes for the simulation of Tropical Cyclones (TCs) in the Indian subcontinent region, using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. From the available schemes, four CP schemes, namely Kain–Fritsch, Betts–Miller–Janjic, New Simplified Arakawa–Schubert, and Grell–Devenyi, and four MP schemes, namely WSM6, Purdue Lin, Thompson, and Morrison, are selected for the sensitivity study. Seven TCs are simulated using all combinations of the chosen physics schemes. The simulated tracks and intensities are compared against the India Meteorological Department (IMD) observations. The results show that the Kain–Fritsch scheme, in combination with all MP schemes, predicts the tracks best among all the available CP schemes, but the performance of microphysics schemes is indistinguishable. A further study is conducted using the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) radar data to identify the best MP scheme by comparing the reflectivities. An existing radar simulator is modified to calculate the simulated reflectivities from the WRF model output corresponding to the MP schemes. The simulated reflectivities are compared against the GPM radar reflectivities, and the results show that the Thompson scheme reproduces the reflectivities closest to observations. The performance of the best set of schemes obtained from this study is compared with a random set of schemes for cyclone Bulbul, and the best set of schemes outperformed the random schemes in every aspect.

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