Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Multi-approach synergic investigation between land surface temperature and land-use land-cover


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      Rapid urban expansion and associated land-use land-cover (LULC) change in India have emerged as a serious environmental threat that accelerates the impacts of urban heat island intensity (UHII). Three independent investigations have been conducted in this study using a series of Landsat data. The objectives of this work are: (1) To predict the near-future LULC scenario using an integrated model; (2) To understand the connection between band mean for particular LULC class with LST; (3) To analyze the temporal relationship between different types of built-up clusters and LST. The LULC and LST maps reveal that LST increases from $27.01^{0}$ to $33.86^{0}\rm{C}$, whereas built-up areas rise from 6.93% to 27.10% during 1988–2018, respectively. We observed that the near-future LULC scenario of KMA shows a huge expansion of built-up areas paid by decreased vegetation and open spaces. A clear significant correlation has been found between band mean and LST in all three Landsat sensors with the $R^{2} = 0.84$; $p$<$0.02$ for Landsat 5 TM, $R^{2} = 0.91$ and $0.99$; $p$<$0.01$ and $0.00$ for Landsat $7 \rm{ETM+}$, and $R^{2} = 0.88$; $p$<$0.01$ for Landsat 8 OLI in connection to our second objective. However, no agreement has been found between different built-up clusters and LST over 30 years of observation. For the first time, this study established the interconnectivity between bands of Landsat sensors and LST. The temporal relationship between different built-up clusters and LST have reviled also for the first time. Beside this, the rising rate of built-up areas was observed by the integrated model. Such alarming condition demands immediate attention to sustainable, and scientific land use regulations under new urbanism policy.

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