• C Balaji

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Polarized microwave forward model simulations for tropical storm Fanoos

      C Balaji M Deiveegan S P Venkateshan R M Gairola A Sarkar V K Agarwal

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      In the present study, forward radiative transfer simulations are carried out for the tropical cyclone Fanoos that hit the coast off south India in December 2005. The in-house radiative transfer package used for this study employs the doubling and adding method to calculate radiances leaving the top of the one dimensional precipitating atmosphere. The particle drop size distribution is assumed to follow a modified gamma distribution in respect of the cloud liquid water and cloud ice water content. For precipitation, the Marshall–Palmer particle size distribution is used. All the hydrometeor particles are assumed to be spherical and Lorentz Mie theory is used to evaluate the interaction parameters like absorption, scattering coefficients and polarized scattering matrix. In order to validate the drop size distributions and interaction parameter calculations, the simulated brightness temperatures are compared with the TMI measured brightness temperatures for all the channels. For carrying out this exercise, vertical hydrometeors retrieved by TMI are used as input. The differences between simulated and measured brightness temperatures are found to be within ± 10%. The maximum difference in the brightness temperatures between the present work and the Eddington model which the TRMM algorithm employs is about 4.5K. This may become significant when retrieval of precipitation is attempted by combining the forward model with a suitable retrieval strategy, under tropical conditions.

    • Retrieval of hydrometeors from microwave radiances with a polarized radiative transfer model

      C Balaji M Deiveegan S P Venkateshan R M Gairola A Sarkar V K Agarwal

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      This paper reports the results of a Bayesian-based algorithm for the retrieval of hydrometeors from microwave satellite radiances. The retrieval technique proposed makes use of an indigenously developed polarized radiative transfer (RT) model that drives a data driven optimization engine (Bayesian) to perform retrievals of rain and other hydrometeors in a multi-layer, plane parallel raining atmosphere. For the sake of completeness and for the purposes of comparison, retrievals with Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) have also been done. Retrievals have been done first with a simplified two-layer atmosphere, where assumed values of hydrometeors are given to the forward model and these are taken as ‘measured radiances’. The efficacy of the two retrieval strategies is then tested for this case in order to establish accuracy and speed. The highlight of the work is however, the case study wherein a tropical storm in the Bay of Bengal is taken up, to critically examine the performance of the retrieval algorithm for an extreme event wherein a 14-layer realistic, raining atmosphere has been considered and retrievals are done against Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) measured radiances. The key novelties of the work are:

      inclusion of polarization from both hydrometeors and oceans in the RT model, and

      populating the database involving atmospheric profiles vs. simulated radiances by profiles of similar rain events in the past.

      In this work, the database was populated with TRMM retrieved profiles for tropical cyclones that occurred earlier in the area of interest (Indian Ocean), rather than with the Goddard Cloud Ensemble profiles. The use of (i) polarization in the forward model and (ii) creation of an a priori database for the retrieval denote the significant departure from the current state-of-the-art in the area.

    • Radiative transfer simulations for the MADRAS imager of Megha-Tropiques

      K Srinivasa Ramanujam C Balaji

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      This paper reports the radiative transfer simulations for the passive microwave radiometer onboard the proposed Indian climate research satellite Megha-Tropiques due to be launched in 2011. These simulations have been performed by employing an in-house polarized radiative transfer code for raining systems ranging from depression and tropical cyclones to the Indian monsoon. For the sake of validation and completeness, simulations have also been done for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)’s Microwave Imager (TMI) of the highly successful TRMM mission of NASA and JAXA. The paper is essentially divided into two parts: (a) Radiometer response with specific focus on high frequency channels in both the radiometers is discussed in detail with a parametric study of the effect of four hydrometeors (cloud liquid water, cloud ice, precipitating water and precipitating ice) on the brightness temperatures. The results are compared with TMI measurements wherever possible. (b) Development of a neural network-based fast radiative transfer model is elucidated here. The goal is to speed up the computational time involved in the simulation of brightness temperatures, necessitated by the need for quick and online retrieval strategies. The neural network model uses hydrometeor profiles as inputs and simulates spectral microwave brightness temperature at multiple frequencies as output. A huge database is generated by executing the in-house radiative transfer code for seven different cyclones occurred in North Indian Ocean region during the period 2001–2006. A part of the dataset is used to train the network while the remainder is used for testing purposes. For the purpose of testing, a typical scene from the Southwest monsoon rain is also considered. The results obtained are very encouraging and show that the neural network is able to mimic the underlying physics of the radiative transfer simulations with a correlation coefficient of over 99%.

    • An artificial neural network based fast radiative transfer model for simulating infrared sounder radiances

      Praveen Krishnan K Srinivasa Ramanujam C Balaji

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      The first step in developing any algorithm to retrieve the atmospheric temperature and humidity parameters at various pressure levels is the simulation of the top of the atmosphere radiances that can be measured by the satellite. This study reports the results of radiative transfer simulations for the multichannel infrared sounder of the proposed Indian satellite INSAT-3D due to be launched shortly. Here, the widely used community software k Compressed Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Algorithm (kCARTA) is employed for performing the radiative transfer simulations. Though well established and benchmarked, kCARTA is a line-by-line solver and hence takes enormous computational time and effort for simulating the multispectral radiances for a given atmospheric scene. This necessitates the development of a much faster and at the same time, equally accurate RT model that can drive a real-time retrieval algorithm. In the present study, a fast radiative transfer model using neural networks is proposed to simulate radiances corresponding to the wavenumbers of INSAT-3D. Realistic atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles have been used for training the network. Spectral response functions of GOES-13, a satellite similar in construction, purpose and design and already in use are used. The fast RT model is able to simulate the radiances for 1200 profiles in 18 ms for a 15-channel GOES profile, with a correlation coefficient of over 99%. Finally, the robustness of the model is tested using additional synthetic profiles generated using empirical orthogonal functions (EOF).

    • Sensitivity of tropical cyclone Jal simulations to physics parameterizations

      R Chandrasekar C Balaji

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      In this study, the sensitivity of numerical simulations of tropical cyclones to physics parameterizations is carried out with a view to determine the best set of physics options for prediction of cyclones originating in the north Indian Ocean. For this purpose, the tropical cyclone Jal has been simulated by the advanced (or state of science) mesoscale Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model on a desktop mini super computer CRAY CX1 with the available physics parameterizations. The model domain consists of one coarse and two nested domains. The resolution of the coarse domain is 90 km while the two nested domains have resolutions of 30 and 10 km, respectively. The results from the inner most domain have been considered for analyzing and comparing the results. Model simulation fields are compared with corresponding analysis or observation data. The track and intensity of simulated cyclone are compared with best track estimates provided by the Joint Typhoon Warning Centre (JTWC) data. Two sets of experiments are conducted to determine the best combination of physics schemes for track and intensity and it is seen that the best set of physics combination for track is not suitable for intensity prediction and the best combination for track prediction overpredicts the intensity of the cyclone. The sensitivity of the results to orography and level of nesting has also been studied. Simulations were also done for the cyclone Aila with (i) best set of physics and (ii) randomly selected physics schemes. The results of the Aila case show that the best set of physics schemes has more prediction skill than the randomly selected schemes in the case of track prediction. The cumulus (CPS), planetary boundary layer (PBL) and microphysics (MP) parameterization schemes have more impact on the track and intensity prediction skill than the other parameterizations employed in the mesoscale model.

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