• Biswajit Ghosh

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Indicator minerals as guides to base metal sulphide mineralisation in Betul Belt, central India

      Biswajit Ghosh M N Praveen

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      Zn-bearing minerals that act as indicator minerals for base metal sulphide mineralization from the Proterozoic Betul Belt,central India with special emphasis on their genetic significance have been discussed.Sulphide mineralisation is hosted by the felsic volcanic rocks and has similarities with volcanic-hosted massive sulphide deposits in other parts of the world.Synvolcanic hydrothermal alteration is crudely zoned with an inner high Mg-Ca core and an outer wider envelop of Al-Fe rich mineral assemblage.Most of the prospects have strata bound,moderately to steeply dipping, multiple,sub-parallel sheet like ore bodies composed of disseminated and semi-massive to massive ores.Zn-bearing spinel,staurolite,biotite and ilmenite typically occur within the foot-wall altera- tion zones in close proximity to the sulphide mineralization.Zincian spinel is ubiquitous irrespective of the nature of alteration zone.Zincian staurolite is nearly absent in Mg-Ca alteration zones but commonly present in Al-Fe alteration zone along with zincian ilmenite.Zn-bearing biotite in intimate association with zincian spinel is generally found in Mg-Ca alteration zone and in the transition to Al-Fe alteration zone.Most of these indicator minerals can be considered as products of desulphidation of sphalerite during metamorphism.Mechanisms other than desulphidation like formation of gahnite by overstepping of the zinc saturation limit of biotite during retrogression to chlorite and formation of zincian staurolite at the expense of gahnite is also recorded.Field presence of these minerals has immense significance in exploration in Betul Belt as they occur in close spatial relationship with the sulphide rich zones and therefore act as direct vectors to ore.

    • Felsic tuff from Rutland Island – A pyroclastic flow deposit in Miocene-sediments of Andaman-Java subduction complex

      Tapan Pal Biswajit Ghosh Anindya Bhattacharya S K Bhaduri

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      The bedded felsic tuff exposed in Rutland Island, Andaman, consists of two facies:

      white massive tuff with ill-defined bedding contacts (facies-A) and

      dominantly green tuff exhibiting well-developed turbidite sequence with up-section change from a massive unit to plane laminated units to ripple drift lamination (facies-B).

      The felsic tuff is vitric to crysto-vitric in nature and contains broken crystals of quartz, feldspar, biotite and glass shards of different shapes and sizes. The bulk chemistry indicates trachyte to dacite compositional range, and high values of Zr relative to Nb and Y suggest convergent margin tectonic setting of the tuff. Dominance of cuspate shards rather than blocky shards in both the facies indicates subaerial eruption of the pyroclasts. Recurrence of turbidites as well as good sorting of crystals and glass suggest that subaerially erupted ash was transported in subaqueous condition. The bed pattern supports rapid deposition of facies- A from high concentration turbidity flow whereas facies-B could be produced by decrease in grain size and suspended-load fallout rate of turbidity current. Regional correlation suggests that felsic volcanism in Sumatra was the source for such early Miocene to middle Miocene tuff.

    • Chromian spinel-rich black sands from eastern shoreline of Andaman Island, India: Implication for source characteristics

      Koyel Bhatta Biswajit Ghosh

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      Black sands rich in chromian spinel commonly occur in pockets along the eastern shoreline of Andaman Island where various types of peridotites and volcanics belonging to the Andaman ophiolite suite are exposed in close vicinity. The chemistry of these detrital chromian spinels has been extensively used here in identifying the source rocks vis-à-vis deciphering the source characteristics. The composition of the chromian spinels (Cr#: 0.20–0.88, Mg#: 0.26–0.77, Al2O3: 5.04–48.21 wt.%, TiO2: up to 1.39 wt.% and Fe2+/Fe3+: 1.73–9.12) varies widely signifying multiple sources, of which mantle peridotites and volcanic rocks are relevant in an ophiolitic terrain. The volcanic chromian spinels are relatively fresh, commonly euhedral, sometimes with compositional variations, and contain inclusions in contrast to the mantle peridotitic chromian spinels which are rounded, extensively fractured, and altered. We used a number of geochemical bivariate plots in order to know the provenance protoliths. The volcanic chromian spinels show geochemical characters of MORB, related to spreading centers (either MOR or back-arc) and also boninites/arc-tholeiites, related to active subduction. On the other hand, the peridotitic spinels indicate partially depleted lherzolite and depleted harzburgite source of the ophiolite suite.

    • Provenance analysis of the Oligocene turbidites (Andaman Flysch), South Andaman Island: A geochemical approach

      P C Bandopadhyay Biswajit Ghosh

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      The Oligocene-aged sandstone-shale turbidites of the Andaman Flysch are best exposed along the east coast of the South Andaman Island. Previously undocumented sandstone-shale geochemistry, investigated here, provides important geochemical constraints on turbidite provenance. The average 70.75 wt% SiO2, 14.52 wt% Al2O3, 8.2 wt% Fe2O$^{\text{t}}_{3}$+MgO and average 0.20 Al2O3/SiO2 and 1.08 K2O/Na2O ratios in sandstones, compare with quartzwackes. The shale samples have average 59.63 wt% SiO2, 20.29 wt% Al2O3, 12.63 wt% Fe2O$^{\text{t}}_{3}$+MgO and average 2.42 K2O/Na2O and 0.34 Al2O3/SiO2 ratios. Geochemical data on CaO–Na2O–K2O diagram fall close to a granite field and on K2O/Na2O–SiO2 diagram within an active continental margin tectonic setting. The range and average values of Rb and Rb/Sr ratios are consistent with acid-intermediate igneous source rocks, while the values and ratios for Cr and Ni are with mafic rocks. Combined geochemical, petrographic and palaeocurrent data indicate a dominantly plutonic-metamorphic provenance with a lesser contribution from sedimentary and volcanic source, which is possibly the Shan–Thai continental block and volcanic arc of the north-eastern and eastern Myanmar. Chemical index of alteration (CIA) values suggests a moderate range of weathering of a moderate relief terrane under warm and humid climate.

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