Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science
Volume 121 Issue 4 August 2012 pp 1025-1032
Precise information of geoid undulations is essential for obtaining the orthometric heights from Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements over any region; apart from providing the information of subsurface density distribution. This paper presents computation of geoid undulations over a part of southern Indian region from terrestrial gravity and elevation data using remove–restore technique that involves spherical Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to compute ‘Stokes’ coefficients. Computed geoid undulations are compared with geoid obtained from global geopotential models such as EGM2008 and EIGENGRACE02S and measured GPS-levelling records at 67 locations. Statistical analysis of comparison suggests that the computed gravimetric geoid model has a good match with the geoid determined from GPS-levelling with rms of 0.1 m whereas EGM2008 has 0.46 m. The differences of GPS-levelling with EGM2008 at majority of stations fall in the range of ± 0.5 m, which indicates that EGM2008 may be used for orthometric height determination with an accuracy of > 0.5 m in the south Indian region and offers a reasonably good transformation platform from ellipsoid to local datum. However, local determination of geoid is necessary for better accuracy of orthometric height from GPS. The gravimetric geoid calculated from the available gravity data shows considerable improvement to the global model and can be used to achieve orthometric height with an accuracy of 0.1 m.
Volume 124 Issue 2 March 2015 pp 419-430
The chemical and isotopic compositions of thermal springs located along the Son–Narmada–Tapti (SONATA) mega lineament in central India have been investigated. The issuing temperatures of the thermal waters vary from 31° to 89°C for the thermal springs and 24° to 25°C for the cold springs. These thermal springs are located on the Archean Chotanagpur Gneissic Complex (CGC) in the eastern part of peninsular India. The thermal springs are mostly alkaline in nature with pH varying from 7.5 to 9.5. Piper diagram suggests that the chemistry of the thermal waters is compatible with the granitic host rocks through which the waters circulate. Mineral saturation index suggests that the thermal waters are saturated with cristobalite and quartz at lower temperatures (less than $\sim$130 to 150°C), and calcite and forsterite at higher temperatures ($\sim$160° to 250°C). The estimated reservoir temperature based on chemical geothermometers is in the range of 132°–265°C, which favours a medium enthalpy geothermal system. Oxygen isotope fractionation of Bakreswar and Tantloi thermal springs highlights a higher reservoir temperature than estimated by chemical geothermometer. Positive gravity anomalies over Bakreswar and Tantloi areas strongly suggest a basement/mantle upliftment or mafic intrusion which could account for the heat source close to the surface. However, the large negative gravity anomaly depression around the Surajkund and Katkamsandi thermal springs indicates presence of deep seated faults.
Volume 131, 2022
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