• Ashwani Kumar

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Aftershock activity of Bhuj earthquake of january 26th, 2001

      Ashwani Kumar S C Gupta A K Jindal Sanjay Jain Vandana

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      Following a large-sized Bhuj earthquake (Ms = 7.6) of January 26th, 2001, a small aperture 4-station temporary local network was deployed, in the epicentral area, for a period of about three weeks and resulted in the recording of more than 1800 aftershocks (-0.07 ≤ML <5.0). Preliminary locations of epicenters of 297 aftershocks (2.0 ≤ML <5.0) have brought out a dense cluster of aftershock activity, the center of which falls 20 km NW of Bhachau. Epicentral locations of after-shocks encompass a surface area of about 50 × 40 km2 that seems to indicate the surface projection of the rupture area associated with the earthquake. The distribution of aftershock activity above magnitude 3, shows that aftershocks are nonuniformly distributed and are aligned in the north, northwest and northeast directions. The epicenter of the mainshock falls on the southern edge of the delineated zone of aftershock activity and the maximum clustering of activity occurs in close proximity of the mainshock. Well-constrained focal depths of 122 aftershocks show that 89% of the aftershocks occurred at depths ranging between 6 and 25 km and only 7% and 4% aftershocks occur at depths less than 5 and more than 25 km respectively. The Gutenberg-Richter (GR) relationship, logN = 4.52 - 0.89ML, is fitted to the aftershock data (1.0<-ML<5.0) and theb-value of 0.89 has been estimated for the aftershock activity.

    • Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of Himachal Pradesh and adjoining regions

      Nilesh Shaligram Patil Josodhir Das Ashwani Kumar Madan Mohan Rout Ranjit Das

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      Seismically active Himachal Pradesh and adjoining regions comprising Himalayan orogenic belt with the experience of the great Kangra earthquake of 1905, has high potential for river valley projects. There are already operating hydropower projects, some under construction and a few more coming up. In view of this it is important to know the ground motion nature for various locales. The present study is about estimation of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) for the state of Himachal Pradesh and adjoining regions using probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) approach. Standard procedure for PSHA has been adopted for this study and peak ground motion has been estimated for 10% and 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years at the bed rock level considering two cases: (i) varying 𝑏-value for each source zone, (ii) constant 𝑏-value for each source zone. For 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years, the PGA values vary from 0.096 to 0.15 g and 0.09 to 0.26 g considering varying 𝑏-value, and constant 𝑏-value, respectively. In case of 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years, the PGA varies between 0.07 to 0.24 g considering varying 𝑏-values and 0.14 to 0.37 g considering constant 𝑏-values. Higher PGA values are observed in the southeast part considering varying 𝑏-values whereas the region situated around Kaurik Fault System (KFS) has shown higher PGA values in case of constant 𝑏-value.

    • Application of environmental isotopes and hydrochemistry in the identification of source of seepage and likely connection with lake water in Lesser Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India

      Shive Prakash Rai Dharmaveer Singh Ashwani Kumar Rai Bhishm Kumar

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      Oxygen (δ18O) and hydrogen (δ2H and 3H) isotopes of water, along with their hydrochemistry, were used to identify the source of a newly emerged seepage water in the downstream of Lake Nainital, located in the Lesser Himalayan region of Uttarakhand, India. A total of 57 samples of water from 19 different sites, in and around the seepage site, were collected. Samples were analysed for chemical tracers like Ca++, Mg++, Na+, K+, SO4−− and Cl using an Ion Chromatograph (Dionex IC-5000). A Dual Inlet Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer (DIIRMS) and an Ultra-Low Level Liquid Scintillation Counter (ULLSC), were used in measurements of stable isotopes (δ2H and δ18O) and a radioisotope (3H), respectively. Results obtained in this study repudiate the possibility of any likely connection between seepage water and the lake water, and indicate that the source of seepage water is mainly due to locally recharged groundwater. The study suggests that environmental isotopes (δ2H, δ18O and 3H) can effectively be used as ‘tracers’ in the detection of the source of seepage water in conjunction with other hydrochemical tracers, and can help in water resource management and planning.

    • Analysing the change in water quality parameters along river Ganga at Varanasi, Mirzapur and Ghazipur using Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 satellite data during pre-lockdown, lockdown and post-lockdown associated with COVID-19


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      The proper functioning of the river ecosystem has been symbolised by healthy aquatic life. The river Ganga has shown signs of rejuvenation due to lockdown. In this study, an attempt has been made to analyse the change in river water quality using Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 imageries. The quantitative analysis has been performed for temperature and normalised difference turbidity index (NDTI). The qualitative analysis has been performed for pH, dissolved oxygen (DO) and total suspended solids (TSSs). Ghazipur, Varanasi and Mirzapur stretches have been selected for this study. In the Ghazipur stretch, the river temperature decreased by 7.14% in May 2020 (lockdown period) as compared to May 2019 (1 yearbefore lockdown). Similarly, in the Varanasi stretch, this decrease has been by 8.62%, and in the Mirzapur stretch, this decrease has been by 12.06% in May 2020 compared to May 2019. For the same period, NDTI in the Ghazipur, Varanasi and Mirzapur stretch has been decreased by 0.22, 0.26 and 0.24, respectively. The pH and DO of the river increased, and TSS decreased for the considered time period. The lockdown during the second wave of the coronavirus disease 2019 was not helpful for river rejuvenation. This study elicited how the behaviour of the parameters changed during the lockdown.


      $\bullet$ River Ganga becomes much cleaner in the lockdown period (May 2020) compared to the pre-lockdown time.

      $\bullet$ In the Mirzapur stretch, the temperature decreased most in May 2020 as compared to May 2019.

      $\bullet$ In the Varanasi stretch, there is a maximum variation in the NDTI value in May 2020 in comparison with that of May 2019.

      $\bullet$ The most significant task will be to maintain river conditions during post-lockdown similar to that prevailed during lockdown.

      $\bullet$ In the second wave COVID-19 lockdown the river again became polluted like the pre-COVID times.

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