• Abhik Kundu

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Palaeoseismicity in relation to basin tectonics as revealed from soft-sediment deformation structures of the Lower Triassic Panchet formation, Raniganj basin (Damodar valley), eastern India

      Abhik Kundu Bapi Goswami Patrick G Eriksson Abhijit Chakraborty

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      The Raniganj basin in the Damodar valley of eastern India is located within the riftogenic Gondwana Master-Basin. The fluvio-lacustrine deposits of the Lower Triassic Panchet Formation of the Damodar valley in the study area preserve various soft-sediment deformation structures such as slump folds, convolute laminae, flame structures, dish-and-pillar structures, sandstone dykes, pseudonodules and syn-sedimentary faults. Although such soft-sediment deformation structures maybe formed by various processes, in the present area the association of these structures, their relation to the adjacent sedimentary rocks and the tectonic and depositional setting of the formation suggest that these structures are seismogenic. Movements along the basin margin and the intra-basinal faults and resultant seismicity with moderate magnitude (2–5 on Richter scale) are thought to have been responsible for the soft-sediment deformations.

    • Depositional environment and provenance of Middle Siwalik sediments in Tista valley, Darjiling District, Eastern Himalaya, India

      Abhik Kundu Abdul Matin Malay Mukul

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      The frontal part of the active, wedge-shaped Indo-Eurasian collision boundary is defined by the Himalayan fold-and-thrust belt whose foreland basin accumulated sediments that eventually became part of the thrust belt and is presently exposed as the sedimentary rocks of the Siwalik Group. The rocks of the Siwalik Group have been extensively studied in the western and Nepal Himalaya and have been divided into the Lower, Middle and Upper Subgroups. In the Darjiling–Sikkim Himalaya, the Upper Siwalik sequence is not exposed and the Middle Siwalik Subgroup exposed in the Tista river valley of Darjiling Himalaya preserves a ∼325 m thick sequence of sandstone, conglomerate and shale. The Middle Siwalik section has been repeated by a number of north dipping thrusts. The sedimentary facies and facies associations within the lithostratigraphic column of the Middle Siwalik rocks show temporal repetition of sedimentary facies associations suggesting oscillation between proximal-, mid- and distal fan setups within a palaeo-alluvial fan depositional environment similar to the depositional setup of the Siwalik sediments in other parts of the Himalaya. These oscillations are probably due to a combination of foreland-ward movement of Himalayan thrusts, climatic variations and mountain-ward shift of fanapex due to erosion. The Middle Siwalik sediments were derived from Higher- and Lesser Himalayan rocks. Mineral characteristics and modal analysis suggest that sedimentation occurred in humid climatic conditions similar to the moist humid climate of the present day Eastern Himalaya.

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