Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science
Volume 93 Issue 2 July 1984 pp 111-116
Earlier investigations have shown that a power law relationship of the type
Volume 94 Issue 3 November 1985 pp 249-259
Sensitivity of the radar scattering coefficient to the oceanic wind vector in the midangular range for frequencies from L- to Ku- band is studied. This is based on computations of scattering coefficient via the two-scale scattering theory employing a semi-empirical model for the ocean spectrum suggested by Fung and Lee and the slope distribution by Cox and Munk. Higher frequency and incident angles of over 45 degrees seem to yield better wind sensitivity.
Volume 95 Issue 1 March 1986 pp 75-82
The paper deals with the relationship between the sea surface wind speed (
Volume 96 Issue 3 December 1987 pp 259-266
The problem of selecting the optimum operating frequency of a scatterometer, used for remote sensing of sea surface wind speed has been addressed by applying the criteria of maximum sensitivity of backscattering coefficient to wind speed as well as its correlation with wind speed. The backscattering coefficient values for sea surface were computed by the two-scale scattering theory. To compute the atmospheric transmittance, 753 clear sky atmospheres over Indian Ocean were used. While the correlation coefficient was uniform (0.94) throughout the frequency range of 1 to 30GHz, only frequencies above 5GHz were found sensitive enough to yield a wind speed accuracy of ±2msec−1 and better, the accuracy improving with frequency.
Volume 97 Issue 2 December 1988 pp 192-192 Erratum
Volume 107 Issue 2 June 1998 pp 127-137
A two-dimensional numerical model is employed to study the effect of the coastal urban heat island on the sea breeze front and the thermal internal boundary layer height. The temperature at the land surface is determined by solving an energy budget equation. The effect of the urban heat island is studied by varying the width of the region and its intensity. During the early afternoon, the presence of the urban heat island enhances the strength of convergence of the sea breeze front and also reduces its inland penetration. The presence of the urban heat island causes increased thermal internal boundary layer height. Larger urban width causes larger vertical velocity and higher thermal internal boundary layer. Stronger convergence and higher thermal internal boundary layer are also obtained in case of larger heat island intensity.
Volume 107 Issue 3 September 1998 pp 213-216
An analytical form for the source function is formulated by comparing the fetch-limited approximation of the Ocean Wave Transport equation and the empirical equation for the fetch-dependent wave forecast nomograms. The source function thus generated has been utilised in the numerical model based on Toba’s formulation of wave transport equation and tested for the seas around the Indian subcontinent (5°S to 25°N latitude; 45°E to 100°E longitude). The grid averaged hindcast wave heights are found to be moderately matching with the GEOSAT altimeter measured significant wave heights of the 1987–1989 period, particularly for waves higher than 1 meter.
Volume 111 Issue 3 September 2002 pp 297-303
The nature of the inherent temporal variability of surface winds is analyzed by comparison of winds obtained through different measurement methods. In this work, an auto-correlation analysis of a time series data of surface winds measured
Volume 115 Issue 2 April 2006 pp 235-237
Time series observations of significant wave heights in the Bay of Bengal were subjected to auto-correlation analysis to determine temporal variability scale. The analysis indicates an exponential fall of auto-correlation in the first few hours with a decorrelation time scale of about six hours. A similar figure was found earlier for ocean surface winds. The nature of variation of auto-correlation with time lags was also found to be similar for winds and wave heights
Volume 120 Issue 2 April 2011 pp 329-336
The widespread retreat of glaciers can be considered as a response to the climate change. Being the largest retreating glacier–ice shelf system in East Antarctica, the Amery Ice Shelf–Lambert Glacier system plays an important role in contributing to sea level rise as well as the surrounding environment and climate. The present study is focused on the investigation of surface melting over the ice shelf using QuikSCAT Ku-band scatterometer data for more than 100 months covering the period from January 2000 to July 2009. The corresponding weather data of Davis Station was obtained from the website of Australian Antarctic Division. Very prominent dips in the backscatter observed in the month of January form a distinct signature caused by physical process of significant melting of the ice/snow surface. The steep increase again in February is attributed to the initiation of the freezing phenomenon. The derived melting index compared well with the passive microwave-based melting index derived by other researchers. A strong relationship was found between the scatterometer-derived melting index and the cumulative monthly mean air temperature. The highest melting was observed in the summer (January) of 2004, and thereafter gradual cooling appeared to take place in the subsequent years. The snow pack thickness, inferred from the backscatter variations, was found to be higher during winters (June) of 2004 and 2005, compared with other years.
Volume 120 Issue 3 June 2011 pp 337-345
An atmospheric correction method has been applied on sea surface temperature (SST) retrieval algorithm using Very High Resolution Radiometer (VHRR) single window channel radiance data onboard Kalpana satellite (K-SAT). The technique makes use of concurrent water vapour fields available from Microwave Imager onboard Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM/TMI) satellite. Total water vapour content and satellite zenith angle dependent SST retrieval algorithm has been developed using Radiative Transfer Model [MODTRAN ver3.0] simulations for Kalpana 10.5–12.5 𝜇m thermal window channel. Retrieval of Kalpana SST (K-SST) has been carried out for every half-hourly acquisition of Kalpana data for the year 2008 to cover whole annual cycle of SST over Indian Ocean (IO). Validation of the retrieved corrected SST has been carried out using near-simultaneous observations of ship and buoys datasets covering Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal and IO regions. A significant improvement in Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD) of K-SST with respect to buoy (1.50–1.02 K) and to ship datasets (1.41–1.19 K) is seen with the use of near real-time water vapour fields of TMI. Furthermore, comparison of the retrieved SST has also been carried out using near simultaneous observations of TRMM/TMI SST over IO regions. The analysis shows that K-SST has overall cold bias of 1.17 K and an RMSD of 1.09 K after bias correction.
Volume 121 Issue 2 April 2012 pp 385-392
Wave prediction and hindcast studies are important in ocean engineering, coastal infrastructure development and management. In view of sparse and infrequent
Volume 122 Issue 1 February 2013 pp 187-199
The OSCAR (ocean surface current analysis real-time),which is a product derived from various satellite observations,has been evaluated in the tropical Indian Ocean (TIO)in two di ﬀerent ways.First,the OSCAR-derived monthly climatology has been compared with available drifter-derived climatology in the TIO.From the comparison of the two climatologies,one can infer that OSCAR product is able to capture the variabilities of the well-known surface current systems in the TIO reasonably well.Fourier analysis of the major current systems,as reproduced by OSCAR,shows that the dominant annual and semiannual periodicities,known to exist in these systems,have been faithfully picked up by OSCAR. Next,the evaluation has been carried out by comparing the OSCAR currents with currents measured by moored buoys.The zonal component of OSCAR-current is in good agreement with corresponding component of buoy-observed current with a correlation exceeding 0.7,while the match between the meridional components is poorer.The locations of the peaks of the mean and eddy kinetic energies are matching in both the climatologies,although the peak in the drifter climatology is stronger than the same in the OSCAR product.Finally,an important feature of Indian Ocean circulation,namely the reverse Wyrtki jet,occurring during anomalous dipole years,has been well-reproduced by OSCAR currents.