• ARKADEB BANERJEE

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Rainfall over the Himalayan foot-hill region: Present and future

      ARKADEB BANERJEE A P DIMRI KIREET KUMAR

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      Uttarakhand, one of the Himalayan foot-hill states of India, covers an area of $51,125 \rm{km}^{2}$. This region is enriched with bio-diversity and is one of the highly potential regions in the Central Himalayas for agroclimate, hydro power generation, food-processing, tourism, etc. Present study investigates the spatio-temporal rainfall distribution over the state during Indian summer monsoon period. Observational and modelled (under different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) at radiative forcing 2.6, 4.5 and $8.5 \rm{W/m}^{2}$) rainfall distribution is studied to assess the present and future trends. Study uses standard observational rainfall estimates from APHRODITE, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM 3B42) and India Meteorological Department (IMD) gridded rainfall datasets and inter-compare these products in order to Bnd out orographic responses during the monsoon months and elevation dependent mean rainfall pattern changes. It is found that rainfall pattern breaks near 3100 m elevation. Comparative analysis reflects that with respect to IMD, TRMM 3B42 rainfall underestimates more than 3 mm/day rainfall whereas, APHRODITE overestimates rainfall below 4.5 mm/day. Future trends in modelled monsoon rainfall are examined and mixed results are found and discussed with possible explanation.

    • Temperature over the Himalayan foothill state of Uttarakhand: Present and future

      ARKADEB BANERJEE A P DIMRI K KUMAR

      More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF

      Uttarakhand, a hill state of India, covers an area of 51,125 km$^{2}$. The geographic position is highly crucial with in the Central Himalayas (CH), for agro-climate, water resource management, food-processing, tourism, etc., having enriched bio-diversity and forest. Present study investigates the spatio-temporal characteristics and distribution of temperature of Uttarakhand state. Observation and model (under different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) at radiative forcing 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5 W/m$^{2}$) temperature fields are studied to assess the present and future trends. Standard temperature fields from AphroTemp, Climate Research Unit (CRU) and ECMWF Reanalysis-Interim (ERA-Interim) are used. Attempt is to find orographic responses on the surface temperature at seasonal scale. Elevation dependent warming (EDW) is higher at higher elevations as compared to lower elevations. In particular, it reaches to maximum during Indian summer monsoon months (JJAS) as estimated from AphroTemp during 1970–2007. Munsiyari region experiences highest warming rate by 0.038$^{\circ}$C/decade. Elevational temperature trends show higher increase with statistical significance at 99% confidence level from <500 to 3000 m elevation belt during JJAS. For elevation >3000 m, highest warming trend is observed during MAM. Further, temperature trends analysed using one of the regional climate models REMO of the CORDEX-SA suite, depict an increase by 0.019$^{\circ}$C/yr. Future temperature trends under RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 show warming trends by 0.008$^{\circ}$, 0.022$^{\circ}$, and 0.064$^{\circ}$C/yr, respectively.

      $\bf{Highlights}$

      $\bullet$ Provide process information on temperature across and along the foothills of Himalayas during climate change

      $\bullet$ Elevation dependent changes in the temperature

      $\bullet$ Orographic interactions.

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