Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Examining climate change impact on the variability of ground water level: A case study of Ahmednagar district, India

      Sivarajan N A Anoop Kumar Mishra Mohammd Rafiq Nagraju V Sagarika Chandra

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      This study focuses on examination of variability in the depth to water below ground level (bgl) from 1996 to 2016 in Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra, India in changing climate. Spatial variability of groundwater depth was mapped and classified as shallow, normal, deep and moderate using GIS modeling. Groundwater decline rates during successive decades were examined and critical areas with a significant fall in groundwater levels (GWL) were detected. Present study also focuses on examination of block-wise variability of GWL. Ground water level shows significant variability during 1996–2016 at confidence level 95%. The long term ground water level fluctuation indicates that water levels in major parts of the study area have declined drastically. The depth to ground water in major parts of the study area ranges between 6 and 15 m bgl except in Parner and Shrirampur blocks. Furthermore, depth to water level is >15 mbgl over Sangamner block during the drought year 2004. Present study reports a significant decadal increase of about 0.7 m in water leval decline over the study area. Groundwater depletion over the study area has been observed with decrease in groundwater recharge and increase in temperature and urbanization. Groundwater depletion shows coherent variability with temperature. Our results report a significant decrease of about 0.61 cm/year in ground water recharge as a result of decrease in precipitation and a decadal increase of about 0.1$^{\circ}$ C in temperature over the study area. Evapotranspiration (ET) shows yearly increasing trend of about 9.6 mm over the study area. Results reported in this study highlight the importance of sustainable groundwater resource management over the study area.

    • Observational study of a severe snowfall avalanche over a state in North India in November 2019 using GIS


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      Heavy snowfall in the first week of November 2019 caused snow avalanche that resulted in huge loss in the form of lives and properties over Kashmir Valley in North India. About 17 people were killed including 11 soldiers by the snow avalanche resulting from heavy snowfall. Data from seven stations of India Meteorological Department (IMD) have been used to study the snowfall events. These stations include Kupwara, Gulmarg, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology (SKUAST), Pahalgam, Kokernag, Qazigund and Konibal. Kokernag recorded the highest snowfall of about 120 mm on November 8. SKUAST recorded snowfall of about 80 mm on November 8. Heavy snowfall started on November 6 and lasted up to November 8, 2019. Gulmarg, Kokernag and Kupwara reported cumulative snowfall of more than 100 mm during November 6–8, 2019. These stations are located in hilly region. Heavy snowfall combined with steep slope resulted in heavy snow avalanche causing heavy damage. An army camp situated in northern Gulmarg was swept away due to avalanche resulting in four causalities. Heavy snowfall also affected agriculture, horticulture, transportations and economy of the valley.


      $\bullet$ A snowfall avalanche event has been explored using GIS over Kashmir Valley.

      $\bullet$ Heavy snowfall combined with steep slope resulted in heavy snow avalanche causing extreme damage.

      $\bullet$ This extreme event affected transportation, agriculture and horticulture.

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