Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Examining climate change impact on the variability of ground water level: A case study of Ahmednagar district, India

      Sivarajan N A Anoop Kumar Mishra Mohammd Rafiq Nagraju V Sagarika Chandra

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      This study focuses on examination of variability in the depth to water below ground level (bgl) from 1996 to 2016 in Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra, India in changing climate. Spatial variability of groundwater depth was mapped and classified as shallow, normal, deep and moderate using GIS modeling. Groundwater decline rates during successive decades were examined and critical areas with a significant fall in groundwater levels (GWL) were detected. Present study also focuses on examination of block-wise variability of GWL. Ground water level shows significant variability during 1996–2016 at confidence level 95%. The long term ground water level fluctuation indicates that water levels in major parts of the study area have declined drastically. The depth to ground water in major parts of the study area ranges between 6 and 15 m bgl except in Parner and Shrirampur blocks. Furthermore, depth to water level is >15 mbgl over Sangamner block during the drought year 2004. Present study reports a significant decadal increase of about 0.7 m in water leval decline over the study area. Groundwater depletion over the study area has been observed with decrease in groundwater recharge and increase in temperature and urbanization. Groundwater depletion shows coherent variability with temperature. Our results report a significant decrease of about 0.61 cm/year in ground water recharge as a result of decrease in precipitation and a decadal increase of about 0.1$^{\circ}$ C in temperature over the study area. Evapotranspiration (ET) shows yearly increasing trend of about 9.6 mm over the study area. Results reported in this study highlight the importance of sustainable groundwater resource management over the study area.

    • Observational study of a severe snowfall avalanche over a state in North India in November 2019 using GIS


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      Heavy snowfall in the first week of November 2019 caused snow avalanche that resulted in huge loss in the form of lives and properties over Kashmir Valley in North India. About 17 people were killed including 11 soldiers by the snow avalanche resulting from heavy snowfall. Data from seven stations of India Meteorological Department (IMD) have been used to study the snowfall events. These stations include Kupwara, Gulmarg, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology (SKUAST), Pahalgam, Kokernag, Qazigund and Konibal. Kokernag recorded the highest snowfall of about 120 mm on November 8. SKUAST recorded snowfall of about 80 mm on November 8. Heavy snowfall started on November 6 and lasted up to November 8, 2019. Gulmarg, Kokernag and Kupwara reported cumulative snowfall of more than 100 mm during November 6–8, 2019. These stations are located in hilly region. Heavy snowfall combined with steep slope resulted in heavy snow avalanche causing heavy damage. An army camp situated in northern Gulmarg was swept away due to avalanche resulting in four causalities. Heavy snowfall also affected agriculture, horticulture, transportations and economy of the valley.


      $\bullet$ A snowfall avalanche event has been explored using GIS over Kashmir Valley.

      $\bullet$ Heavy snowfall combined with steep slope resulted in heavy snow avalanche causing extreme damage.

      $\bullet$ This extreme event affected transportation, agriculture and horticulture.

    • Observing a severe flooding over southern part of India in monsoon season of 2019


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      Kerala is one of the most flood prone states of India due to its geographical location and topography. In recent decades, the frequency and intensity of flood has significantly increased in Kerala. Floods that occurred in the year 2007, 2009, 2014 and 2018 resulted in heavy damage in the form of lives and properties. This research focuses on exploring a recent flood event of Kerala in July–August 2019 using observations from space. Enhanced convective activities over Kerala were resulted due to movement of a low-pressure system westwards from Bay of Bengal towards coastal Arabian Sea under favourable conditions. Results report that excess cumulative rainfall resulting from multi-day extreme precipitation events due to enhanced convection during July and August resulted in catastrophic flood events over various parts of Kerala. Kannur, Wayanad, Kozhikode and Palakkad districts of north Kerala were affected more as compared to other region. Kannur district received a cumulative rainfall of about 1300 mm from multiple rainy spells during July and August of 2019. Peak rainfall was recorded on August 08, 2019. A peak hourly rainfall of about 60 mm/h was recorded at 1230 UTC on August 08 over Kannur district. These multiple heavy to very heavy rainfall episodes led to severe flooding over Kerala resulting in huge damage. Present research emphasizes on the importance of space-borne satellite remote sensing in monitoring of flood events in order to envisage preparedness and mitigation in flood scenarios.


      $\bullet$ Flood event over southern part of India has been explored from space observations

      $\bullet$ Kerala, a state in south India, suffered a severe flood due to multi-day heavy precipitation

      $\bullet$ Technique described in this manuscript can be used for disaster preparedness

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