Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Model showing influence of tectonics and energy condition of the fluvial environment on facies architecture: A case history of Quaternary alluvial deposits of Purna basin, central India


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      Present work includes identification of lithofacies and reconstruction of depositional environments including controls of tectonics, and energy condition of the medium on sedimentation pattern of alluvial deposits of Purna basin, central India. The basin exhibits good development of dominantly areno-argillaceous sediments along with restricted occurrences of boulder-pebbly lithounits, covering together an area of 6,522 km$^{2}$. These sediments are also characterized by preservation of various calcrete morphotypes, vertebrate remains and Youngest Toba Tuff (YTT) ash in certain stratigraphic units. The work is based on detailed field and lithological studies of 20 river-cut sections exposed along the course of Purna river, representing entire alluvial deposits in both vertical and lateral profiles. Three lithofacies associations have been identified, i.e., (1) gravelly facies association (FA-1), (2) sandy facies association (FA-2) and, (3) silty-clayey facies association (FA-3). These associations consist of total 10 lithofacies distributed as: (i) matrix supported massive gravelly (Gmm) facies, (ii) matrix supported gravelly (Gmg) facies, (iii) horizontally stratified gravelly (Gh) facies, (iv) planar stratified gravelly (Gp) facies (FA-1), (v) horizontal sandy (Sh) facies, (vi) planar cross stratified sandy (Sp) facies, (vii) low angle cross bedded sandy (Sl) facies, (viii) massive sandy (Sm) facies (FA-2), (ix) laminated sandy (Fl) facies, and (x) palaeosol (P) facies (FA-3). Various architectural elements have also been identified. Based on lateral and vertical profiling of the lithofacies architecture, it is interpreted that gravel dominated facies in the mountainous region of the basin area are deposited by medium to high energy debris flow,whereas sandy and silty-clayey facies in the plain area are because of saltation and suspension modes of deposition under medium to low energy condition of depositing medium. The tectonic and topographical controls are well reflected on the sedimentation pattern and the same has been illustrated by proposing a model. Discussions along with the model have also been made on the progressive development of bazada or, pediment zone along the northern margin of the basin marked by the foothills of Satpura mountain ranges.

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