• A R Chodankar

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Compositional variation and genesis of ferromanganese crusts of the Afanasiy—Nikitin Seamount, Equatorial Indian Ocean

      R P Rajani V K Banakar G Parthiban A V Mudholkar A R Chodankar

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      Eight ferromanganese crusts (Fe-Mn crusts) with igneous and sedimentary substrates collected at different water depths from the Afanasiy-Nikitin Seamount are studied for their bulk major, minor and rare earth element composition. The Mn/Fe ratios < 1.5 indicate the hydrogenetic accretion of the Fe-Mn hydroxides. These Fe-Mn crusts are enriched in Co (up to 0.9%, average ∼ 0.5%) and Ce. The Ce-content is the highest reported so far (up to 3763 ppm, average ∼ 2250 ppm) for global ocean seamount Fe-Mn crusts. In spite of general similarity in the range of major, minor, and strictly trivalent rare earth element composition, the dissimilarity between the present Fe-Mn crusts and the Pacific seamount Fe-Mn crusts in Co and Ce associations with major mineral phases indicates inter-oceanic heterogeneity and region-specific conditions responsible for their enrichment. The decrease in Ce-anomaly (from ∼ 8 to ∼ 1.5) with increasing water depth (from ∼ 1.7 km to ∼ 3.2 km) might suggest that the modern intermediate depth low oxygen layer was shifted and sustained at a deeper depth for a long period in the past.

    • Platinum group elements and gold in ferromanganese crusts from Afanasiy–Nikitin seamount, equatorial Indian Ocean: Sources and fractionation

      V K Banakar J R Hein R P Rajani A R Chodankar

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      The major element relationships in ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts from Afanasiy-Nikitin seamount (ANS), eastern equatorial Indian Ocean, appear to be atypical. High positive correlations (𝑟 = 0.99) between Mn/Co and Fe/Co ratios, and lack of correlation of those ratios with Co, Ce, and Ce/Co, indicate that the ANS Fe-Mn crusts are distinct from Pacific seamount Fe-Mn crusts, and reflect region-specific chemical characteristics. The platinum group elements (PGE: Ir, Ru, Rh, Pt, and Pd) and Au in ANS Fe-Mn crusts are derived from seawater and are mainly of terrestrial origin, with a minor cosmogenic component. The Ru/Rh (0.5-2) and Pt/Ru ratios (7-28) are closely comparable to ratios in continental basalts, whereas Pd/Ir ratios exhibit values (> 2) similar to CI-chondrite (∼1). The chondrite-normalized PGE patterns are similar to those of igneous rocks, except that Pd is relatively depleted. The water depth of Fe-Mn crust formation appears to have a first-order control on both major element and PGE enrichments. These relationships are defined statistically by significant (𝑟 < 0.75) correlations between water depth and Mn/Co, Fe/Co, Ce/Co, Co, and the PGEs. Fractionation of the PGE-Au from seawater during colloidal precipitation of the major-oxide phases is indicated by well-defined linear positive correlations (𝑟 < 0.8) of Co and Ce with Ir, Ru, Rh, and Pt; Au/Co with Mn/Co; and by weak or no correlations of Pd with water depth, Co-normalized major-element ratios, and with the other PGE (𝑟 $mt; 0.5). The strong enrichment of Pt (up to 1 ppm) relative to the other PGE and its positive correlations with Ce and Co demonstrate a common link for the high concentrations of all three elements, which likely involves an oxidation reaction on the Mn-oxide and Fe-oxyhydroxide surfaces. The documented fractionation of PGE-Au and their positive association with redox sensitive Co and Ce may have applications in reconstructing past-ocean redox conditions and water masses.

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