A K Chaubey
Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science
Volume 108 Issue 4 December 1999 pp 255-267
Investigations of three plausible tectonic settings of the Kerguelen hotspot relative to the Wharton spreading center evoke the on-spreading-axis hotspot volcanism of Paleocene (60-54 Ma) age along the Ninetyeast Ridge. The hypothesis is consistent with magnetic lineations and abandoned spreading centers of the eastern Indian Ocean and seismic structure and radiometric dates of the Ninetyeast Ridge. Furthermore, it is supported by the occurrence of oceanic andesites at Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Site 214, isotopically heterogeneous basalts at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 757 of approximately the same age (59-58 Ma) at both sites. Intermix basalts generated by plume-mid-ocean ridge (MOR) interaction, exist between 11° and 17°S along the Ninetyeast Ridge. A comparison of age profile along the Ninetyeast Ridge between ODP Sites 758 (82 Ma) and 756 (43 Ma) with similarly aged oceanic crust in the Central Indian Basin and Wharton Basin reveals the existence of extra oceanic crust spanning 11° latitude beneath the Ninetyeast Ridge. The extra crust is attributed to the transfer of lithospheric blocks from the Antarctic plate to the Indian plate through a series of southward ridge jumps at about 65, 54 and 42 Ma. Emplacement of volcanic rocks on the extra crust resulted from rapid northward motion (absolute) of the Indian plate. The Ninetyeast Ridge was originated when the spreading centers of the Wharton Ridge were absolutely moving northward with respect to a relatively stationary Kerguelen hotspot with multiple southward ridge jumps. In the process, the spreading center coincided with the Kerguelen hotspot and took place on-spreading-axis volcanism along the Ninetyeast Ridge.
Volume 119 Issue 6 December 2010 pp 803-813
Multi-channel seismic reﬂection proﬁles across the southwest continental margin of India (SWCMI) show presence of westerly dipping seismic reﬂectors beneath sedimentary strata along the western ﬂank of the Laccadive Ridge –northernmost part of the Chagos –Laccadive Ridge system. Velocity structure, seismic character, 2D gravity model and geographic locations of the dipping reﬂectors suggest that these reﬂectors are volcanic in origin, which are interpreted as Seaward Dipping Reﬂectors (SDRs).
The SDRs; 15 to 27 km wide overlain by ∼1 km thick sediment; are observed at three locations and characterized by stack of laterally continuous, divergent and off-lapping reﬂectors. Occurrence of SDRs along western ﬂank of the Laccadive Ridge adjacent to oceanic crust of the Arabian Basin and 2D crustal model deduced from free-air gravity anomaly suggest that they are genetically related to incipient volcanism during separation of Madagascar from India.
We suggest that (i)SWCMI is a volcanic passive margin developed during India –Madagascar breakup in the Late Cretaceous, and (ii)continent –ocean transition lies at western margin of the Laccadive Ridge, west of feather edge of the SDRs. Occurrence of SDRs on western ﬂank of the Laccadive Ridge and inferred zone of transition from continent to ocean further suggest continental nature of crust of the Laccadive Ridge.