• A D Gouveia

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Diurnal and semidiurnal tidal currents in the deep mid-Arabian Sea

      S S C Shenoi A D Gouveia S R Shetye

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      Current meter records from two depths, approximately 1000 and 3000 m, at three moorings in the deep mid-Arabian Sea were used to study tidal components. Tidal ellipses for the semi-diurnal (M2, S2 and K2) and the diurnal (K1, and P1) tidal constituents have been determined using the currents recorded at hourly intervals during May 1986–May 1987. The clockwise rotating M2 tidal currents were the strongest. The maximum horizontal velocities due to M2,2 and K1 tides were 2.2 cm/s, l.0cm/s and 0.89 cm/s respectively. The amplitudes of the other two constituents (P1, and K2) were much smaller. The barotropic M2 ellipses have been estimated by averaging the M2 tidal currents at the upper and lower levels. Although the amplitudes of computed ellipses are lower than those that have been predicted using numerical models of global tidal model, their orientations are the same.

    • Circulation and water masses of the Arabian Sea

      S R Shetye A D Gouveia S S C Shenoi

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      The dynamics and thermodynamics of the surface layer of the Arabian Sea, north of about 10N, are dominated by the monsoon-related annual cycle of air-sea fluxes of momentum and heat. The currents in open-sea regime of this layer can be largely accounted for by Ekman drift and the thermal field is dominated by local heat fluxes. The geostrophic currents in open-sea subsurface regime also show a seasonal cycle and there is some evidence that signatures of this cycle appear as deep as 1000 m. The forcing due to Ekman suction is an important mechanism for the geostrophic currents in the central and western parts of the Sea. Recent studies suggest that the eastern part is strongly influenced by the Rossby waves radiated by the Kelvin waves propagating along the west coast of India.

      The circulation in the coastal region off Oman is driven mainly by local winds and there is no remotely driven western boundary current. Local wind-driving is also important to the coastal circulation off western India during the southwest monsoon but not during the northeast monsoon when a strong (approximately 7 × 106m3/sec) current moves poleward against weak winds. This current is driven by a pressure gradient which forms along this coast during the northeast monsoon due to either thermohaline-forcing or due to the arrival of Kelvin waves from the Bay of Bengal.

      The present speculation about flow of bottom water (deeper than about 3500 m) in the Arabian Sea is that it moves northward and upwells into the layer of North Indian Deep Water (approximately 1500–3500m). It is further speculated that the flow in this layer consists of a poleward western boundary current and a weak equatorward flow in the interior. It is not known if there is an annual cycle associated with the deep and the bottom water circulation.

    • Propagation of tides in the Mandovi-Zuari estuarine network

      S R Shetye A D Gouveia S Y Singbal C G Naik D Sundar G S Michael G Nampoothiri

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      Located in Goa on the west coast of India and joining the Arabian Sea, the Mandovi and the Zuari are two estuaries, each about 50 km long, connected by a narrow canal. A number of small rivers join the two estuaries, forming a network of channels, whose cross-sectional area decreases rapidly in the upstream direction. They receive large freshwater influx during the southwest monsoon and little during the rest of the year. During April (dry season) and August (wet season) 1993, the water level and salinity at 15 locations in the network were monitored for 3 days to determine characteristics of tidal propagation in the network. Analysis of the data shows that the speed of propagation of both the diurnal and the semi-diurnal tide through the main channels of the network is approximately 6 m/s. Amplitudes of these tides in the channels remain unchanged over a distance of about 40 km from the mouth and then decay rapidly upstream over the next 10 km. The undamped propagation is a consequence of the balance between geometric amplification, due to decrease in the cross-sectional area in the upstream direction, and frictional dissipation. The rapid decay near the upstream end of the channels appears to result primarily from freshwater influx.

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