• A Chattopadhyay

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Magnetotelluric survey across Singhbhum granite batholith

      K K Roy C K Rao A Chattopadhyay

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      Magnetotelluric soundings have been carried out across the archaean terrain of Singhbhum granite batholith from Bangriposhi to Keonjhar for a distance of about 100 km. One-dimensional inversion models reveal that the depth of the moho varied between 23 and 40 km. The depth of the lithosphere asthenosphere boundary varied from 58 to 76 km. A zone of higher electrical conductivity detected at the base of the lower crust just above the moho is present along the entire profile. Signals within the range of 0.25 to 600 seconds, which crossed the coherency threshold of 0.8 to 0.9, could be stacked. Resistivity ranges of the crust mantle silicates below Singhbhum granite batholith vary over a wide range. Resistivity ranges are (i) 30,000–80,000 ohm for Singhbhum granite phase II, (ii) 2,000 to 9,000 ohm-m for Singhbhum granite phase III, (iii) 250 to 2,200 ohm-m for lower crust (iv) 3,000 to 47,000 ohm for the upper mantle and (v) 200 to 2300 ohm-m for the asthenosphere. Sharp break in electrical resistivity at the (i) upper crust-lower crust (ii) lower crust upper mantle and (iii) lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary is obtained along the entire profile. Signals could see up to 100 km below the granite batholith. Singhbhum granite phase II and III could be demarcated on the basis of resistivity. Low resistive zones in the lower crust and upper mantle might have formed due to (i) water (ii) combined effect of water and carbon and (iii) high temperature and partial melt.

    • Polyphase deformation and garnet growth in politic schists of Sausar Group in Ramtek area, Maharashtra, India: A study of porphyroblast–matrix relationship

      A Chattopadhyay N Ghosh

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      Polyphase deformation and metamorphism of pelitic schists of Chorbaoli Formation of Sausar Group in and around Ramtek area,Nagpur district,Maharashtra,India has led to the development of garnet and staurolite porphyroblasts in a predominantly quartz –mica matrix.Microstructural study of oriented thin sections of these rocks shows that garnet and staurolite have different growth histories and these porphyroblasts share a complex relationship with the matrix.Garnet shows at least two phases of growth –first intertectonic between D1 and D2 (pre-D2 phase)and then syn-tectonic to post-tectonic with respect to D2 deformation.Growth of later phase of garnet on the earlier (pre-D2 garnet grains has led to the discordance of quartz inclusion trails between core and rim portion of the same garnet grain.Staurolite develops only syn-D2 and shows close association with garnet of the later phase.The peak metamorphic temperature thus coincided with D2 deformation,which developed the dominant crenulation schistosity ($S_2$ ,regionally persistent in the terrain.The metamorphic grade reached up to middle amphibolite facies in the study area, which is higher than the adjoining southern parts of Sausar Fold Belt.

    • The initiation and linkage of surface fractures above a buried strike-slip fault: An experimental approach

      N Ghosh A Chattopadhyay

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      Surface fractures in the overburdened sedimentary rocks, formed above a deep-seated basement fault, often provide important information about the kinematics of the underlying master fault. It has already been established that these surface fractures dynamically evolve and link one another with progressive displacement on the master fault below. In the present study, two different series of riedel-type experiments were carried out with clay analogue models under different boundary conditions viz., (i) heterogeneous simple shear of the cover rocks above a buried strike slip fault (wrench system) and (ii) heterogeneous simple shear with a component of shear-normal compression of the overburden package above a basement fault (transpressional system), to observe the initiation and linkage of surface fractures with varying $T^\prime$ (where $T^\prime$ = thickness of the overburden normalized with respect to the width of the master fault). In the wrench system, Riedel (R) shears were linked by principal displacement (Y) shears at early stages (shear strain of 0.8 to 1) in thin (2 > $T^\prime$ > 18) models and finally (at a minimum shear strain of 1.4) gave rise to a through-going fault parallel to the basement fault without development of any other fracture. Conjugate Riedel (R′) shears develop only within the thicker ($T^\prime$ < 18) clay models at a minimum shear strain of 0.7. With increasing deformation (at a minimum shear strain of 1.2) two R′ shears were joined by an R shear and finally opened up to make a sigmoidal vein with an asymmetry antithetic to the major faultmovement sense. Under transpression, the results were similar to that of heterogeneous simple shear for layers 2 > $T^\prime$ > 15. In layers of intermediate thickness (15 > $T^\prime$ > 25) early formed high angle R shears were cross cut by low angle R shears (at a minimum shear strain of 0.5 and shortening of 0.028) and “Riedel-within-Riedel” shears were formed within thick ($T^\prime$ < 25) models (at minimum shear strain of 0.7 and shortening of 0.1), with marked angularity of secondary fault zone with the master fault at depth.

    • Deformation and metamorphism of gold-sulphide lodes in the Bhukia–Jagpura gold prospect, Rajasthan: Implications for ore genesis

      S Deol A Chattopadhyay M Deb

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      The role of polyphase deformation in controlling the emplacement of gold-quartz lodes in dilational regimes is demonstrated from the Proterozoic Bhukia–Jagpura gold prospect in south Rajasthan. Earlier researchers deciphered the gold-sulphide mineralisation event as synchronous to the second phase of deformation (D2) without convincing microstructural or metamorphic evidences. In this contribution, we correlate the deformation and metamorphic imprints in the host rocks with those in the gold-sulphide mineralised zone, and present a new interpretation for the relative timing of gold emplacement vis-á-vis deformation. The ore-forming process first involved layer-parallel influx of ore-bearing hydrothermal fluids along $S_1$ schistosity in the host rocks, synkinematic with respect to the first phase of deformation (D1). This initial ore concentration experienced metamorphism isofacially (∼500° C at 5.3 kb) along with its host rocks during D1, and subsequently underwent extensive remobilisation, giving rise to gold-bearing silicified lodes along the hinges and axial surfaces of F2 folds during D2.

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