• A A Munot

      Articles written in Journal of Earth System Science

    • Variation in the relationship of the Indian summer monsoon with global factors

      D A Mooley A A Munot

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      Utilizing data for the long period 1871–1990, variation in the relationships between Indian monsoon rainfall (IMR) and tendencies of the global factors. Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and the sea surface temperature (SST) over eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean has been explored. The periods for which relationships exist have been identified. Tendencies from the season SON (Sept-Oct-Nov) to season DJF (Dec-Jan-Feb) and from DJF to MAM (Mar-Apr-May) before the Indian summer monsoon are indicated respectively by SOIT-2/SSTT-2 and SOIT-l/SSTT-1, current tendency from JJA (June-July-Aug) to SON, by SOIT0/SSTT0, tendencies from SON to DJF and DJF to MAM following monsoon, by SOIT1/SSTT1 and SOIT2/SSTT2 respectively.

      It is observed that while the relationships of IMR with SSTT-1, SSTT0 and SSTT2 exist almost throughout the whole period, that with SOIT-1 exists for 1942–1990, with SOIT0 for 1871–1921 and 1957–1990 and with SOIT2, for 1871–1921 only. The relationships that exist with SOIT-1, SOIT2, SSTT-1, SSTT2 and with SSTT0 (for period 1931–1990) are found to be very good and those that exist with SOIT0 for periods 1871–1921 and 1957–90 and for SSTT0 for the period 1871–1930 are good. It is thus seen that the relationships of SOIT-1, SOIT0 and SOIT2 with IMR do not correspond well with those of SSTT-1, SSTT0 and SSTT2 with IMR respectively, even though SOI and SST are closely related to each other for all the seasons. SOIT-1 and SSTT-1 can continue to be used as predictors for IMRDuring the whole period, IMR is found to play a passive, i.e. of being influenced or anticipated by SSTT-1 as well as an active role, i.e. of influencing or anticipating SSTT2. This implies a complex and perhaps non-linear interaction between IMR and SST tendency from DJF to MAM. Possibly, this is a part of the larger interaction between Asian monsoon rainfall and the tropical Pacific. A possible physical mechanism for the interaction is indicated.

    • Homogeneous Indian Monsoon rainfall: Variability and prediction

      B Parthasarathy K Rupa Kumar A A Munot

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      The Indian summer monsoon rainfall is known to have considerable spatial variability, which imposes some limitations on the all-India mean widely used at present. To prepare a spatially coherent monsoon rainfall series for the largest possible area, fourteen subdivisions covering the northwestern and central parts of India (about 55% of the total area of the country), having similar rainfall characteristics and associations with regional/global circulation parameters are merged and their area-weighted means computed, to form monthly and seasonal Homogeneous Indian Monsoon (HIM) rainfall series for the period 1871–1990. This paper includes a listing of monthly and seasonal rainfall of HIM region. HIM rainfall series has been statistically analysed to understand its characteristics, variability and teleconnections for long-range prediction.

      HIM rainfall series isfound to be homogeneous, Gaussian distributed and free from persistence. The mean (R) rainfall is 757 mm (87% of annual) and standard deviation (S) 119 mm, with a Coefficient of Variation (CV) of 16%. There were 21 dry (K, -<R S) and 19 wet (Ri R + S) years during 1871–1990. There were clusters of frequent negative departures during 1899–1920 and 1965–1987 and positive departures during 1942–1961. The recent three decades show very high rainfall variability with 10 dry and 6 wet years. The decadal averages were alternatively positive and negative for three consecutive decades, viz., 1871–1900 (positive); 1901–1930 (negative); 1931–1960 (positive) and 1961–1990 (negative) respectively. Significant QBO and autocorrelation at 14th lag have been found in HIM rainfall series.

      To delineate the changes in the climatic regime of the Indian summer monsoon, sliding correlation coefficients (CCs) between HIM rainfall series and (i) Bombay msl pressure, (ii) Darwin msl pressure and (iii) Northern Hemisphere surface air temperature over the period 1871–1990 have been examined. The 31-year sliding CCs showed the systematic turning points of positive and negative CCs around the years, 1900 and 1940. In the light of other corroborative evidences, these turning points seem to delineate ‘meridional’ monsoon regime during 1871–1900 and 1940–1990 and ‘zonal’ monsoon regime during 1901–1940. The monsoon signal is particularly dominant in many regional and global circulation parameters, during 1951–1990.

      Using the teleconnections ofHIM series with 12 regional/global circulation parameters during the recent 36-year period 1951–86 regression models have been developed for long-range prediction. In the regression equations 3 to 4 parameters were entered, explaining upto 80% of the variance, depending upon the data period. The parameters that prominently enter the multiple regression equations are (i) Bombay msl pressure, (ii) April 500 mb Ridge at 75°E, (iii) NH temperature, (iv) Nouvelle minus Agalega msl pressure and (v) South American msl pressure. Eleven circulation parameters for the period 1951–80 were subjected to Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and the PC’s were used in the regression model to estimate HIM rainfall. The multiple regression with three PCs explain 72% of variance in HIM rainfall.

    • An ocean-atmosphere index for ENSO and its relation to Indian monsoon rainfall

      A A Munot G B Pant

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      An Ocean-Atmosphere Index (OAI) for ENSO is developed using data on Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and sea surface temperature (SST) over eastern equatorial Pacific. Seasonal values of OAI, SOI and SST have been computed for the seasons September-October-November (SON), December-January-February (DJF), March-April-May (MAM) and June-July-August (JJA). Similarly SON to DJF, DJF to MAM, MAM to JJA and JJA to SON tendencies have been worked out for SOI, SST and OAI. The relationships between Indian Monsoon Rainfall (IMR) and SOI/SST/OAI, (i) for the seasons SON, DJF and MAM before and after the monsoon and JJA concurrent with the monsoon and (ii) for SON to DJF and DJF to MAM tendencies before and after the monsoon, and MAM to JJA tendency concurrent with the monsoon have been explored. It is found that IMR is more influenced by SOI before the monsoon than it is influenced by SST before the monsoon and IMR affects SST after monsoon more strongly than it affects SOI after the monsoon. It is also observed that DJF to MAM tendencies for SOI, SST and OAI before monsoon are significantly related to IMR, among which the relationship between IMR and DJF to MAM tendency for OAI is the best.

    • Probabilities of excess and deficient southwest monsoon rainfall over different meteorological sub-divisions of India

      D R Kothawale A A Munot

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      Temporal distribution of southwest monsoon (June –September) rainfall is very useful for the country’s agriculture and food grain production. It contributes more than 75% of India’s annual rainfall. In view of this, an attempt has been made here to understand the performance of the monthly rainfall for June, July, August and September when the seasonal rainfall is reported as excess, deficient or normal. To know the dependence of seasonal rainfall on monthly rainfall, the probabilities of occurrence of excess, deficient and normal monsoon when June, July, August and also June + July and August + September rainfall is reported to be excess or deficient, are worked out using the long homogenous series of 124 years (1871-–1994) data of monthly and seasonal rainfall of 29 meteorological sub-divisions of the plain regions of India.

      In excess monsoon years, the average percentage contribution of each monsoon month to the long term mean (1871–1994) seasonal rainfall (June –September) is more than that of the normal while in the deficient years it is less than normal. This is noticed in all 29 meteorological sub-divisions. From the probability analysis, it is seen that there is a rare possibility of occurrence of seasonal rainfall to be excess/deficient when the monthly rainfall of any month is deficient/excess.

    • Long range prediction of Indian summer monsoon rainfall

      A A Munot K Krishna Kumar

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      The search for new parameters for predicting the all India summer monsoon rainfall (AISMR) has been an important aspect of long range prediction of AISMR. In recent years NCEP/NCAR reanalysis has improved the geographical coverage and availability of the data and this can be easily updated. In this study using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data on temperature, zonal and meridional wind at different pressure levels, few predictors are identified and a prediction scheme is developed for predicting AISMR. The regression coeffcients are computed by stepwise multiple regression procedure. The final equation explained 87% of the variance with multiple correlation coeffcient (MCC), 0.934. The estimated rainfall in the El-Nino year of 1997 was -1.7% as against actual of 4.4%. The estimated rainfall deficiency in both the recent deficient years of 2002 and 2004 were -19.5% and -8.5% as against observed -20.4% and -11.5% respectively.

    • Tree-ring variation in teak (Tectona grandis L.) from Allapalli, Maharashtra in relation to moisture and Palmer Drought Severity Index, India

      Somaru Ram H P Borgaonkar A A Munot A B Sikder

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      We developed a ring-width chronology of teak (Tectona grandis L.) from a moisture stressed area in Maharashtra, India. Bootstrapped correlation analysis indicated that moisture index (MI) and Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) showed better performance rather than same year rainfall over the region. Tree-ring variations were most correlated positively with PDSI during different seasons compared with MI. Significant strong positive correlation with MI, and negative association with temperature and potential evapotranspiration (PET) were found during previous and current year post-monsoon (ON). This study shows that the moisture availability during the post-monsoon of the previous year has a significant role in the development of annual growth rings. The reconstructed previous year post-monsoon (−ON) moisture index for the period 1866–1996 indicates 3.5 and 29.3 years periodicities.

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