The reaction of barium carbonate with 4-nitrobenzoic acid (4-nbaH) results in the formation of a Ba(II) coordination polymer, catena-poly[[(pentaaqua)(4-nitrobenzoato-O,O')barium(II)](𝜇-4-nitrobenzoato-O,O')] 1. The polymeric compound [[Ba(H2O)5(4-nba-O,O')](𝜇-4-nba-O,O')]$_n$ 1 was characterized by elemental analysis, IR and UV-Vis spectra, weight loss studies, X-ray powder diffraction and its structure determined. In 1 five water molecules are coordinated to the central metal and one of the 4-nba ligands is bonded to Ba(II) in a bidentate manner (4-nba-O,O') through the carboxylate O atoms. The [(pentaaqua)(4-nitrobenzoato-O,O')barium(II)] units are linked into an infinite one-dimensional chain along 𝑏-axis with the aid of the second 4-nba anion, which functions as a bridging bidentate (𝜇-4-nba-O,O') ligand. This results in nine coordination around each Ba(II) ion in the coordination polymer. A long Ba$\cdots$Ba distance of 6.750(1) Å is observed between adjacent Ba(II) ions in the chain and the oxygen atoms of the carboxylate group and the nitro functionalities of the 4-nba ligand are involved in several O-H$\cdots$O and C-H$\cdots$O interactions.