• S Ramakrishnan

      Articles written in Journal of Chemical Sciences

    • The determination of interfacial tension by differential capillary rise

      S Ramakrishnan S Hartland

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      A method for directly determining interfacial tension without iteration from the difference in height between two capillaries is presented. An experimental technique is described for organic liquids both lighter and heavier than water, in which the menisci recede over surfaces wetted by the aqueous phase, thus providing the most favourable conditions for zero contact angle. The values determined experimentally using tables prepared from the known shapes of sessile interfaces agree well with accepted values of the interfacial tension.

    • Effect of surfactants on the fluorescence spectra of water-soluble MEHPPV derivatives having grafted polyelectrolyte chains

      Nagesh Kolishetti S Ramakrishnan

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      Poly(2-methoxy-5-[2'-ethylhexyoxy]-1,4-phenylenevinylene) (MEHPPV) derivatives with polyacrylic acid (PAA) chains grafted onto their backbone were found to be water soluble, and they exhibited a dramatic increase in their fluorescence intensity in the presence of a variety of surfactants, even at concentrations far below their critical micelle concentrations (CMC). This increase was accompanied by a blue-shift in the emission maximum. These observations are rationalized based on the postulate that the backbone conformation of the conjugated polymer is modulated upon interaction of the surfactant molecules with the polyelectrolytic tethers, which in turn results in a significant depletion of intra-chain interchromophore interactions that are known to cause red-shifted emission bands with significantly lower emission yields.

    • Understanding the folding process of synthetic polymers by small-molecule folding agents

      S G Ramkumar S Ramakrishnan

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      Two acceptor containing polyimides PDI and NDI carrying pyromellitic diimide units and 1,4,5,8-naphthalene tetracarboxy diimide units, respectively, along with hexa(oxyethylene) (EO6) segments as linkers, were prepared from the corresponding dianhydrides and diamines. These polyimides were made to fold by interaction with specifically designed folding agents containing a dialkoxynaphthalene (DAN) donor linked to a carboxylic acid group. The alkali-metal counter-ion of the donor carboxylic acid upon complexation with the EO6 segment brings the DAN unit in the right location to induce a charge-transfer complex formation with acceptor units in the polymer backbone. This two-point interaction between the folding agent and the polymer backbone leads to a folding of the polymer chain, which was readily monitored by NMR titrations. The effect of various parameters, such as structures of the folding agent and polymer, and the solvent composition, on the folding propensities of the polymer was studied.

    • Synthesis, characterization and photoluminescence properties of graphene oxide functionalized with azo molecules

      R Devi G Prabhavathi R Yamuna S Ramakrishnan Nikhil K Kothurkar

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      Two different azo molecules functionalized graphene oxide (GO) through an ester linkage have been synthesized for the first time. Chemical structure of the azo-GO hybrids was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and UV-visible spectroscopy. The GO functionalized with 5-((4-methoxyphenyl)azo)-salicylaldehyde was further characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The SEM studies demonstrated that the morphology of the azo-GO hybrid was found to be similar to the GO sheets but slightly more wrinkled. Further, TEM image of azo-GO indicates some dark spots on the GO sheets due to azo functionalization. AFM results also reveal that the azo functionalization increases the thickness of GO sheet to 4-5 nm from 1.2-1.8 nm. Both the azo-hybrids show absorption band around 379 nm due to the $\pi-\pi^\ast$ transition of the trans azo units. Photoluminescence spectra of azo-GO hybrids show a strong quenching compared with azo molecules due to the photoinduced electron or energy transfer from the azo chromophore to the GO sheets. It also reveals strong electronic interaction between azo and GO sheets.

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