Articles written in Journal of Chemical Sciences

    • Calixarenes: Versatile molecules as molecular sensors for ion recognition study

      Subrata Patra Debdeep Maity Ravi Gunupuru Pragati Agnihotri Parimal Paul

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      This article presents a brief account on designing of calixarene-based molecular sensor for recognition of various metal ions and anions and also different analytical techniques to monitor the recognition event. This review focuses only on calix[4]arene derivatives, in which mainly the lower rim is modified incorporating either crown moiety to make calix-crown hybrid ionophore to encapsulate metal ions or some fluoregenic inorganic and organic moieties to use it as signalling unit. In order to investigate effect of conformation of the calixarene unit and steric crowding on ion selectivity, designing of these molecules have been made using both the cone and 1,3-alternate conformations of the calixarene unit and also incorporating bulky tert-butyl group in few cases to impose controlled steric crowding. Among various ions, here focuses are mainly on biologically and commercially important alkali metal ion such as K+, toxic metal ions such as Hg2+, Pb2+, Cd2+, important transition metal ion such as Cu2+ and toxic anion like F. The techniques used to monitor the recognition event and also to determine binding constants with strongly interacting ions are fluorescence, UV-vis and 1H NMR spectroscopy. Most of the ionophores reported in this review have been characterized crystallographically, however no structural information (except one case) are incorporated in this article, as it will occupy space without significant enhancement of chemistry part. Different factors such as size of the ionophore cavity, size of metal ion, coordination sites/donor atoms, steric crowding and solvents, which determine selectivity have been discussed. Response of ion recognition process to different analytical techniques is another interesting factor discussed in this article.

    • Colorimetric detection of Cu2+ and Pb2+ ions using calix[4]arene functionalized gold nanoparticles

      Ravi Gunupuru Debdeep Maity Gopala R Bhadu Ashish Chakraborty Divesh N Srivastava Parimal Paul

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      Calixarene functionalized gold nanoparticles (CFAuNPs) have been prepared and characterized by spectroscopic and microscopic (TEM) techniques. To use this material as potential colorimetric sensor, the binding property of this new material has been investigated with a large number of metal ions. It exhibited sharp colour change from dark brown to green and blue, detectable by naked-eye, in the presence of Cu2+ and Pb2+ ions, respectively. It has also triggered substantial change in surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band of the functionalized gold nanoparticles, which in case of Pb(II) is due to the inter particle plasmon coupling arising from the metal-induced aggregation of the nanoparticles and for Cu(II), it is because of the formation of AuCu alloy due to anti-galvanic exchange. The size and aggregation of the nanoparticles are confirmed from HRTEM images, elemental analysis and the line profiling for both the metal ions have been done by STEM-EDX analysis.

    • Water dispersible glycylglycine functionalized gold nanoparticles: application in colorimetric sensing of Hg(II), Pb(II) and Cr(III) in aqueous media


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      Glycylglycine functionalized water-dispersible gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were prepared andcharacterized on the basis of ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR),dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX)analysis. The AuNPs exhibited a strong SPR band at 522 nm, which after functionalization with glycylglycine,appeared at 525 nm. This SPR band of the functionalized nanoparticles is used as a tool for thedetection of toxic metal ions in water. A large number of metal ions were tested, among which Hg2+, Pb2+,and Cr2+ exhibited distinct colour change, detectable with bare eye, and substantial UV-vis spectral change.TEM images and EDX analysis suggested that the colour change is due to metal-induced aggregation of thefunctionalized nanoparticles due to inter-particle plasmon coupling. The aggregation, which resulted in anincrease in particle size, is further confirmed by DLS measurement. A mechanism of metal-induced aggregationis also proposed. The present study is an example of a simple methodology to prepare water-dispersiblefunctionalized nanoparticle for colorimetric detection of toxic heavy metal ions such as Cr2+, Pb2+,and Hg2+ with high sensitivity.

      Synopsis Glycylglycine functionalized water dispersible gold nanoaprticles were prepared, characterized and its metal-ion sensing property was evaluated with the aid of spectroscopic, microscopic and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. These nanoparticles detect Hg2+, Pb2+ and Cr3+ with colour change due to inter particle plasmon coupling because of metal-induced aggregation of the nanoparticles.

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