• P K Bhattacharyya

      Articles written in Journal of Chemical Sciences

    • Chemical approaches of penicillin allergy—III - Isolation of the penicillin-free carrier receptor protein (CRP) on a polymeric 7-deoxy penicillin analogue template and its role in penicillin immunogeneses in rabbit and man

      C V Nataraj Chitra Mandal P K Bhattacharyya

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      Specific penicillin-carrier receptor proteins (CRP) have been isolated from the sera of penicillin allergic rabbits and human subjects in the unconjugated native state in electrophoretically homogeneous form by employing a synthetic polymeric affinity template containing the 7-deoxy analogue of penicillin G. The synthesis of the 7-deoxy analogue has been described. In this affinity system the antipenicillin-antibody is desorbed by 0·9M thiourea and the CRP in 8M urea. The CRP after incubation with penicillin is converted into the full-fledged antigen. Studies on the origin of CRP and the nature of antibody as well as comparative studies on the properties of the rabbit antibody and those of antibodies elicited by a BSA-BPO conjugate are reported.

    • Chemical approaches to penicillin allergy—IV. Binding of carrier receptor protein with penicillin and its analogues

      Chitra Mandal Chabbinath Mandal P K Bhattacharyya

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      The availability of electrophoretically homogeneous rabbit penicillin carrier receptor protein (CRP) by affinity chromatography afforded an idealin vitro system to calculate the thermodynamic parameters of binding of penicillin and analogues with CRP as well as competitive binding of such analogues with CRP in presence of14C-penicillin G. The kinetics of association of CRP with 7-deoxy penicillin which does not bind covalently with CRP have been studied through equilibrium dialysis with14C-7-deoxybenzyl penicillin and found to be K=2·79×106M−1.−ΔG=8·106 k cal/mole as well as fluorescence quenching studies with exciter λ 280 K=3·573×106M−1,−ΔG=8·239 k cal/mole. The fluorescence quenching studies have been extended to CRP-benzyl penicillin and CRP-6-aminopenicillanic acid (6APA) systems also. The fluorescence data with benzyl penicillin indicate two conformational changes in CRP—a fast change corresponding to the non-covalent binding to CRP with 7-deoxy penicillin and a slower change due to covalent bond formation. With 6-APA the first change is not observed but the conformational change corresponding to covalent binding is only seen.

      Competitive binding studies indicate that the order of binding of CRP with the analogues of penicillin is as follows: methicillin > 6APA > carbenicillin >o-nitrobenzyl penicillin > cloxacillin ≈ benzyl penicillin ≈ 6-phenyl acetamido penicillanyl alcohol ≈ 7 phenyl acetamido desacetoxy cephalosporanic acid ≈p-amino benzyl penicillin ≈p-nitro benzyl penicillin > ticarcillin >o-amino benzyl penicillin > amoxycillin > 7-deoxy benzyl penicillin > ampicillin.

      From these data it has been possible to delineate partially the topology of the penicillin binding cleft of the CRP as well as some of the functional groups in the cleft responsible for the binding process.

    • Chemical approaches to penicillin allergy—V. Nature of reaction between rabbit antigen (CRP-penicillin conjugate) and rabbit antipenicillin antibody

      Chitra Mandal P K Bhattacharyya

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      The availability of an electrophoretically homogeneous rabbit penicillin carrier receptor protein (CRP) and rabbit antipenicillin antibody afforded an idealin vitro system to calculate the thermodynamic parameters of the binding of14C benzyl penicillin CRP conjugate (antigen) to the purified rabbit antipenicillin antibody. The thermodynamic parameters of this antigen-antibody reaction has been studied by radio-active assay method by using millipore filter. Equilibrium constant (K) of this reaction has been found to be 2·853×109M−2 and corresponding free energy (ΔG) at 4°C and 37°C has been calculated to be −12·02 and −13·5 kcal/mole, enthalpy (ΔH) and entropy (ΔS) has been found to be 361 kcal/mole and +30 eu/mole respectively.

      Competitive binding studies of CRP-analogue conjugates with the divalent rabbit antibody has been carried out in the presence of14C-penicilloyl CRP. It was found that 7-deoxy penicillin-CRP complex and 6-amino penicilloyl CRP conjugate binds to the antibody with energies stronger than that with the14C-penicilloyl CRP. All the other analogue conjugates are much weaker in interfering with the binding of the penicilloyl CRP with the antibody. The conjugate of methicillin,o-nitro benzyl penicillin and ticarcillin with CRP do not materially interfere in the process.

    • Chemical probes into the active centre of a heme thiolate monoxygenase

      P K Bhattacharyya T B Samanta A H J Ullah I C Gunsalus

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      Linalool-8-monoxygenase, a typical bacterial P-450 heme thiolase, shows a high degree of substrate specificity towards linalool. The active site of the pure enzyme has been probed with a large number of substrate analogues with systematic alterations or conformational variations in the linalool molecule. The comparison of three parameters, the mo→mos conversion of the enzyme as a result of substrate binding monitored at 392 nm, theKD of the analogues giving information about energies of association and the relative turnover as substrate have given information about the space-filling characteristics of the substrates in the enzyme cleft, the number of contacts the molecules make with the respective domains of the enzyme and the distance of the site undergoing hydroxylation from the oxygen site, respectively. The data permit the conclusion that linalool makes contact with the enzyme by hydrogen bonding with the hydroxyl group as well through hydrophobic association with all the eight carbons carrying hydrogen in the molecules.

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