Articles written in Journal of Chemical Sciences
Volume 114 Issue 5 October 2002 pp 513-520
Development of reliable protocols for the synthesis of nanoparticles of well-defined sizes and good monodispersity is an important aspect of nanotechnology. In this paper, we present details of the synthesis of gold nanoparticles of good monodispersity by the reduction of aqueous chloroaurate ions by the amino acid, aspartic acid. The colloidal gold solution thus formed is extremely stable in time, indicating electrostatic stabilization via nanoparticle surface-bound amino acid molecules. This observation has been used to modulate the size of the gold nanoparticles in solution by varying the molar ratio of chloroaurate ions to aspartic acid in the reaction medium. Characterization of the aspartic acid-reduced gold nanoparticles was carried out by UV-visible spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and transmission electron microscopy. The use of amino acids in the synthesis and stabilization of gold nanoparticle in water has important implications in the development of new protocols for generation of bioconjugate materials.
Volume 115 Issue 3 June 2003 pp 185-193
Organization of hexadecylaniline (HDA)-modified colloidal gold particles at the air-water interface and the formation thereafter of lamellar, multilayer films of gold nanoparticles by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique is described in this paper. Formation of HDA-capped gold nanoparticles is accomplished by a simple biphasic mixture experiment wherein the molecule hexadecylaniline present in the organic phase leads to electrostatic complexation and reduction of aqueous chloroaurate ions, capping of the gold nanoparticles thus formed and phase transfer of the now hydrophobic particles into the organic phase. Organization of gold nanoparticles at the air-water interface is followed by surface pressure—area isotherm measurements while the formation of multilayer films of the nanoparticles by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique is monitored by quartz crystal microgravimetry, UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy.
Volume 115 Issue 5-6 October 2003 pp 679-687
This paper describes the formation of water-dispersible gold nano-particles capped with a bilayer of sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS) and octadecylamine (ODA) molecules. Vigorous shaking of abiphasic mixture consisting of ODA-capped gold nanoparticles in chloroform and SDS in water results in the rapid phase transfer of ODA-capped gold nanoparticles from the organic to the aqueous phase, the latter acquiring a pink, foam-like appearance in the process. Drying of the coloured aqueous phase results in the formation of a highly stable, reddish powder of gold nanoparticles that may be readily redispersed in water. The water-dispersible gold nanoparticles have been investigated by UV-Vis spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). These studies indicate the presence of interdigitated bilayers consisting of an ODA primary monolayer directly coordinated to the gold nanoparticle surface and a secondary monolayer of SDS, this secondary monolayer providing sufficient hydrophilicity to facilitate gold nanoparticle transfer into water and rendering them water-dispersible.
Volume 116 Issue 5 September 2004 pp 293-300
In this report we demonstrate a simple process based on amine chemistry for the phase transfer of platinum nanoparticles from an aqueous to an organic solution. The phase transfer was accomplished by vigorous shaking of a biphasic mixture of platinum nanoparticles synthesised in an aqueous medium and octadecylamine (ODA) in hexane. During shaking of the biphasic mixture, the aqueous platinum nanoparticles complex via either coordination bond formation or weak covalent interaction with the ODA molecules present in the organic phase. This process renders the nanoparticles sufficiently hydrophobic and dispersible in the organic phase. The ODA-stabilised platinum nanoparticles could be separated out from hexane in the form of a powder that is readily redispersible in weakly polar and non-polar organic solvents. The ODA-capped platinum nanoparticles show high catalytic activity in hydrogenation reactions and this is demonstrated in the efficient conversion of styrene to ethyl benzene. The nature of binding of the ODA molecules to the platinum nanoparticles surface was characterised by thermogravimetry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)