• H I Khwaja

      Articles written in Journal of Chemical Sciences

    • Homogeneous catalysis by ruthenium carbonyl clusters

      S Bhaduri K R Sharma H I Khwaja

      More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF

      The historical background of and the incentive for using ruthenium carbonyl clusters as homogeneous catalysts are outlined. Keeping in view the possible solutions the uncertainties arising from declusterification and metal colloid formation are discussed. All ruthenium cluster-catalysed reactions are broadly classified as reactions with or without carbon monoxide as one of the reactants and the basic differences between such reactions are highlighted. Some of the factors of special relevance to cluster-catalysed reaction systems are mentioned. The reactions involving carbon monoxide are then discussed. These include water-gas-shift reaction, carbon monoxide hydrogenation, hydroformylation, reductive carbonylation of nitrobenzene and other carbonylation reactions. Hydrogenation, transfer hydrogenation, isomerisation and a few other reactions are then discussed. For all these reactions, special emphasis is laid on well-characterised cluster complexes that have been proposed as catalytic intermediates. Finally an attempt has been made to identify the path that future research in cluster catalysis is likely to follow.

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