• G Mugesh

      Articles written in Journal of Chemical Sciences

    • Aspects of organochalcogen (S, Se, Te) compounds stabilized by intramolecular coordination

      G Mugesh Arunashree Panda Harkesh B Singh

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      The application of intramolecular coordination in the isolation of novel diaryl diselenides and their derivatives, monomeric chalcogenolato complexes of group 12 metals, glutathione peroxidase mimics, hybrid bi-, tri- and multidentate ligands and selenium-containing azamacrocycles is described.

    • Selenium-containing enzymes in mammals: Chemical perspectives

      Gouriprasanna Roy Bani Kanta Sarma Prasad P Phadnis G Mugesh

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      The chemical and biochemical route to the synthesis of the 21st amino acid in living systems, selenocysteine, is described. The incorporation of this rare amino acid residue into proteins is described with emphasis on the role of monoselenophosphate as selenium source. The role of selenocysteine moiety in natural mammalian enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx), iodothyronine deiodinase (ID) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) is highlighted and the effect of other amino acid residues located in close proximity to selenocysteine is described. It is evident from various studies that two amino acid residues, tryptophan and glutamine, appear in identical positions in all known members of the GPx family. According to the three-dimensional structure established for bovine GPx, these residues could constitute a catalytic triad in which the selenol group of the selenocysteine is both stabilized and activated by hydrogen bonding with the imino group of the tryptophan (Trp) residue and with the amido group of the glutamine (Gln) residue. The ID enzymes, on the other hand, do not possess any Trp or Gln residues in close proximity to selenium, but contain several histidine residues, which may play important roles in the catalysis. The TrxR enzymes also possess some basic histidines, but the most important amino acid residues are the cysteines which constitute the internal cofactor systems along with the catalytically active selenocysteine. The catalytic activity and substrate specificity of all three selenoenzymes are described. The reactivity of selenocysteine residues in selenoenzymes towards metal-based drugs such as goldthioglucose is also described.

    • Thyroid hormone synthesis and anti-thyroid drugs: A bioinorganic chemistry approach

      Gouriprasanna Roy G Mugesh

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      Hydrogen peroxide, generated by thyroid oxidase enzymes, is a crucial substrate for the thyroid peroxidase (TPO)-catalysed biosynthesis of thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) in the thyroid gland. It is believed that the H2O2 generation is a limiting step in thyroid hormone synthesis. Therefore, the control of hydrogen peroxide concentration is one of the possible mechanisms for the inhibition of thyroid hormone biosynthesis. The inhibition of thyroid hormone synthesis is required for the treatment of hyperthyroidism and this can be achieved by one or more anti-thyroid drugs. The most widely used anti-thyroid drug methimazole (MMI) inhibits the production of thyroid hormones by irreversibly inactivating the enzyme TPO. Our studies show that the replacement of sulphur in MMI by selenium leads to a selone, which exists predominantly in its zwitterionic form. In contrast to the sulphur drug, the selenium analogue (MSeI) reversibly inhibits the peroxidase-catalysed oxidation and iodination reactions. Theoretical studies on MSeI reveal that the selenium atom in this compound carries a large negative charge. The carbon-selenium bond length in MSeI is found to be close to single-bond length. As the selenium atom exhibits a large nucleophilic character, the selenium analogue of MMI may scavenge the hydrogen peroxide present in the thyroid cells, which may lead to a reversible inhibition of thyroid hormone biosynthesis.

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