• G Krishnamoorthy

      Articles written in Journal of Chemical Sciences

    • Kinetics of proton transfer in a green fluorescent protein: A laser-induced pH jump study

      Roop Mallik Jayant B Udgaonkar G Krishnamoorthy

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      The sub-millisecond protonation dynamics of the chromophore in S65T mutant form of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) was tracked after a rapid pH jump following laser-induced proton release from the caged photolabile compoundo-nitrobenzaldehyde. Following a jump in pH from 8 to 5 (which is achieved within 2 μs), the fluorescence of S65T GFP decreased as a single exponential with a time constant of ∼90 μs. This decay is interpreted as the conversion of the deprotonated fluorescent GFP chromophore to a protonated non-fluorescent species. The protonation kinetics showed dependence on the bulk viscosity of the solvent, and therefore implicates bulk solvent-controlled protein dynamics in the protonation process. The protonation is proposed to be a sequential process involving two steps: (a) proton transfer from solvent to the chromophore, and (b) internal structural rearrangements to stabilize a protonated chromophore. The possible implications of these observations to protein dynamics in general is discussed

    • Identification of intermediate species in protein-folding by quantitative analysis of amplitudes in time-domain fluorescence spectroscopy

      Anoop M Saxena G Krishnamoorthy Jayant B Udgaonkar N Periasamy

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      In protein-folding studies it is often required to differentiate a system with only two-states, namely the native (N) and unfolded (U) forms of the protein present at any condition of the solvent, from a situation wherein intermediate state(s) could also be present. This differentiation of a two-state from a multi-state structural transition is non-trivial when studied by the several steady-state spectroscopic methods that are popular in protein-folding studies. In contrast to the steady-state methods, time-resolved fluorescence has the capability to reveal the presence of heterogeneity of structural forms due to the `fingerprint’ nature of fluorescence lifetimes of various forms. In this work, we establish this method by quantitative analysis of amplitudes associated with fluorescence lifetimes in multiexponential decays. First, we show that we can estimate, accurately, the relative population of species from two-component mixtures of non-interacting molecules such as fluorescent dyes, peptides and proteins. Subsequently, we demonstrate, by analysing the amplitudes of fluorescence lifetimes which are controlled by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), that the equilibrium folding-unfolding transition of the small singledomain protein barstar is not a two-step process.

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