• Veena K Parnaik

      Articles written in Journal of Biosciences

    • Inhibition of avian myeloblastosis virus reverse transcriptase by an RNA-binding protein from plasma membranes of normal and tumor cells

      Veena K Parnaik Pramod K Srivastava M R Das

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      Purified plasma membranes from normal rat liver, a rat hepatoma and a rat hepatic fibrosarcoma have been shown to contain a protein which drastically inhibits avian myeloblastosis virus reverse transcriptase activity. The inhibition is caused by the binding of the protein to the template. The binding and the consequent inhibition of enzyme activity are template-specific; copying of RNA templates is inhibited whilst that of DNA templates remains unaffected. Investigations using different templates suggest that the inhibitory protein has a stronger binding affinity for G, C-rich templates. The inhibitor appears to have a wide distribution in plasma membranes from diverse sources.

    • Towards understanding lamin gene regulation

      Veena K Parnaik Vidya S Jonnalagadda Q Anwar Hamid

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      The lamins are components of the nuclear lamina, which forms a fibrous meshwork lining the inner nuclear membrane. Lamina-membrane interactions play a crucial role during nuclear disassembly and reassembly at mitosis, whereas lamina-chromatin association has been proposed to be essential for chromatin organization. The composition of the lamina changes considerably during embryonic development and cell differentiation. Recent studies have provided insights into the regulation of the lamin genes.

    • Laminopathies: Multiple disorders arising from defects in nuclear architecture

      Veena K Parnaik Kaliyaperumal Manju

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      Lamins are the major structural proteins of the nucleus in an animal cell. In addition to being essential for nuclear integrity and assembly, lamins are involved in the organization of nuclear processes such as DNA replication, transcription and repair. Mutations in the human lamin A gene lead to highly debilitating genetic disorders that primarily affect muscle, adipose, bone or neuronal tissues and also cause premature ageing syndromes. Mutant lamins alter nuclear integrity and hinder signalling pathways involved in muscle differentiation and adipocyte differentiation, suggesting tissue-specific roles for lamins. Furthermore, cells expressing mutant lamins are impaired in their response to DNA damaging agents. Recent reports indicate that certain lamin mutations act in a dominant negative manner to cause nuclear defects and cellular toxicity, and suggest a possible role for aberrant lamins in normal ageing processes.

    • Differential dynamics of splicing factor SC35 during the cell cycle

      Kaushlendra Tripathi Veena K Parnaik

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      Pre-mRNA splicing factors are enriched in nuclear domains termed interchromatin granule clusters or nuclear speckles. During mitosis, nuclear speckles are disassembled by metaphase and reassembled in telophase in structures termed mitotic interchromatin granules (MIGs). We analysed the dynamics of the splicing factor SC35 in interphase and mitotic cells. In HeLa cells expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-SC35, this was localized in speckles during interphase and dispersed in metaphase. In telophase, GFP-SC35 was highly enriched within telophase nuclei and also detected in MIGs. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments revealed that the mobility of GFP-SC35 was distinct in different mitotic compartments. Interestingly, the mobility of GFP-SC35 was 3-fold higher in the cytoplasm of metaphase cells compared with interphase speckles, the nucleoplasm or MIGs. Treatment of cells with inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks) caused changes in the organization of nuclear compartments such as nuclear speckles and nucleoli, with corresponding changes in the mobility of GFP-SC35 and GFP-fibrillarin. Our results suggest that the dynamics of SC35 are significantly influenced by the organization of the compartment in which it is localized during the cell cycle.

    • Lamins, laminopathies and disease mechanisms: Possible role for proteasomal degradation of key regulatory proteins

      Veena K Parnaik Pankaj Chaturvedi B H Muralikrishna

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      Lamins are major structural proteins of the nucleus and are essential for nuclear integrity and organization of nuclear functions. Mutations in the human lamin genes lead to highly degenerative genetic diseases that affect a number of different tissues such as muscle, adipose or neuronal tissues, or cause premature ageing syndromes. New findings on the role of lamins in cellular signalling pathways, as well as in ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation, have given important insights into possible mechanisms of pathogenesis.

    • Potential gene regulatory role for cyclin D3 in muscle cells

      Fathima Athar Veena K Parnaik

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      Cyclin D3 is important for muscle development and regeneration, and is involved in post-mitotic arrest of muscle cells. Cyclin D3 also has cell-cycle-independent functions such as regulation of specific genes in other tissues. Ectopic expression of cyclin D3 in myoblasts, where it is normally undetectable, promotes muscle gene expression and faster differentiation kinetics upon serum depletion. In the present study, we investigated the mechanistic role of cyclin D3 in muscle gene regulation. We initially showed by mutational analysis that a stable and functional cyclin D3 was required for promoting muscle differentiation. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we demonstrated that expression of cyclin D3 in undifferentiated myoblasts altered histone epigenetic marks at promoters of muscle-specific genes like MyoD, Pax7, myogenin and muscle creatine kinase but not non-muscle genes. Cyclin D3 expression also reduced the mRNA levels of certain epigenetic modifier genes. Our data suggest that epigenetic modulation of muscle-specific genes in cyclin-D3-expressing myoblasts may be responsible for faster differentiation kinetics upon serum depletion. Our results have implications for a regulatory role for cyclin D3 in muscle-specific gene activation.

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