• U K Vakil

      Articles written in Journal of Biosciences

    • Purification and physicochemical properties of α -amylase from irradiated wheat

      J P Machaiah U K Vakil

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      α-Amylases from control and gamma-irradiated (at 0.2 and 2.0 kGy dose levels) wheat seedlings were purified to homogeneity and characterized. The molecular weight of the enzyme from a 2 kGy irradiated sample was slightly lower than that of the control; other general and catalytic properties also showed some differences. α-Amylase from the irradiated (2 kGy) sample had a narrow range of pH optimum and was inactivated faster at alkaline pH and by heat treatment than the enzyme from unirradiated wheat. A high apparent Michaelis constant (Km) and a low maximal velocity (Vmax) for the hydrolysis of soluble starch catalyzed by the enzyme from irradiated (2 kGy) wheat, suggested some modifications in the formation of the substrate α-amylase complex. Further, of the total number of amino acid residues lost on irradiation, dicarboxylic amino acids constituted the largest percentage; these structural alterations in the enzyme may be responsible for its partial inactivation. The total sugars liberated upon amylolysis of starch with the 2 kGy irradiated enzyme were lower than control, and there was accumulation of higher maltodextrins in the place of maltose.

    • Binding of arylsulphatase B to isolated rat liver lysosomal membranes

      H R Adhikari Ateeq Ahmed U K Vakil

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      Binding of arylsulphatase B to isolated rat liver lysosomal membrane has been studied at 37‡C. The binding is strongly pH-dependent and is governed by ionic strength of the medium. Experimental evidence is given for the ability of the enzyme to dissociate from the firmly formed membrane-enzyme complex. The dissociation rate is greatly accelerated by raising the buffer molarity. Neuraminidase-treatment of the membrane causes significant reduction in its binding ability to the enzyme. This suggests that sialic acid groups participate, presumably by maintaining surface negativity of the membrane, at a stage of enzymemembrane interaction process which precedes the internalization of the lysosomal enzymes in the lysocomes.

    • Changes in rat liver mitochondrial lipids in vitamin A deficiency

      R S Mullick H R Adhikari U K Vakil

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      The alterations in the lipid profiles of rat liver mitochondria due to vitamin A deficiency were studied. The amount of total lipids and phospholipids were decreased with a concomitant increase in triglycerides and cholesterol levels in mitochondria, isolated from vitamin A-deficient animals. Of particular significance was the observation that the content of lysolecithin, a potent cytolytic agent, was increased. An analysis of individual fatty acids showed that the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids was decreased significantly in vitamin A deficiency. Further, mitochondria from vitamin A-deficient animals, when incubated in 0.1 M Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.4)in vitro, produced increased amounts of malondialdehyde and lipofuchsin pigments indicating increased susceptibility of the mitochondrial membrane to peroxidative damage. These results suggest a possible role of vitamin A in the prevention of the decomposition of structural lipids.

    • Isolation and partial characterisation of α-amylase components evolved during early wheat germination

      J P Machaiah U K Vakil

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      The development of α-amylase (EC activity in wheat was followed during 4 days of germination. The enzyme was purified and separated by gel chromotography into two distinct entities (α-amylase I and α-amylase II), with different molecular weights and isoelectric points. α-Amylase I contained a much higher content of sugars than α-amylase II, which decreased as the germination proceeded. The time sequence analysis of the starch degradation pattern showed that on the 4th day of germination, 15% of the total activity was present in α-amylase I and the rest in a-amylase II. Similarly, differences in the relative rates of synthesis of their isoenzymes were observed. α-Amylase I was resolved on the 4th day of germination, only into 3 isoenzymes, whereas α-amylase II could separate into 4 isoenzymes. The enzyme activity was however maximal in the most electropositive isoenzyme in both the components.

    • Enumeration and structural assessment of peritoneal macrophages during progressive protein deficiency in rats

      U R Iyengar U K Vakil

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      The effects of protein malnutrition on responsiveness of macrophages to proteosepeptone stimulation and on their chemical composition were investigated. Relative number of resident macrophages in rat peritoneal cavity was reduced by about 50 % during 4 weeks on 3 % protein diet. Similarly, decreased migration capacity of the circulating macrophages to the peritoneal exudate in response to the stimulant, was observed in protein-fasted rat compared to that in the 20 % protein-fed group. Further, the chemical composition of the isolated elicited cells was determined. Total proteins, sugars, lipids and nucleic acids were significantly low in the cells isolated from protein-deficient animals, though the cell size was not affected. However, cholesterol: phospholipid molar ratios were distinctly higher than that in control and increased progressively in the 3 and 8 % protein-fed animals. The implications of these structural changes in macrophages on their functional capability are discussed

    • Effects of protein deficiency on selective elicitation of lysosomal enzymes in rat peritoneal macrophages

      U R Iyengar U K Vakil

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      Young albino rats were fedad libitum 4, 8 or 20 % (control) protein diet for 1–4 weeks. Total activities of some of the lysosomal enzymes, namely, acid phosphatase, aryl sulphatase, Β-glucuronidase and cathepsin D, were determined in resident and protease-peptone elicited peritoneal macrophages. Total cell number, protein content and the lysosomal enzyme activities were increased significantly in protease-peptone elicited macrophages; though at a lower rate in 4 % protein-fed group compared to control ones. However, the rate of induction of the tested hydrolases was selective and their response to the stimulant varied widely. Similarly, response of each enzyme to low protein diet also varied. Thus, at 4 weeks, cathepsin D and Β-glucuronidase activities, expressed per total number of elicited macrophages were reduced by 45 and 60 %, respectively, in 4 % protein-fed animals. These results indicate that the metabolic events related to lysosomal function in macrophages, are affected by dietary restriction of proteins

    • Protein deficiency and age related alterations in rat peritoneal macrophage lipids

      J P Machaiah U K Vakil

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      The effects of dietary protein restriction and age on the thioglycollate elicited peritoneal macrophage lipid constituents were studied. Impact of subtle changes in lipid components on macrophage functions have been assessed. Lipid profiles of macrophages recovered from rats fed 20 and 4% protein diets and stock diet fed rats (0 and 3 wk) were comparable qualitatively. Quantitative analysis however revealed significant decrease in phospholipids (30–40%) and consequent elevation of cholesterol/phospholipid molar ratios in the protein depleted and young rats (0 wk), compared to the protein fed groups. The protein deficient and the young rats also exhibited accumulation of certain neutral lipids and reduction in triglycerides. Analysis of fatty acid methyl esters of macrophage phospholipids revealed the predominance of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids even when oleic (C18:1) and linoleic (C18:2) formed the bulk of unsaturated fatty acids in the diet. However, the long chain poly unsaturated fatty acid content, particularly the docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3) was greatly reduced in the protein depleted and 0 wk rats. Observed changes in the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids of macrophage phospholipids may be of physiological significance as they modulate the immunological functions of the cell.

  • Journal of Biosciences | News

      Forthcoming Special issue.

    • To trigger further research on plant mitochondria, the Journal of Biosciences is bringing out a special issue titled "Plant Mitochondria: Properties and Interactions with Other Organelles".

      Plant mitochondria are quite distinct and have unique features, such as a cyanide-insensitive alternate pathway. They also interact with chloroplasts to optimize photosynthetic carbon assimilation.

      Submissions are welcome until 30 July 2023. The contributions can be original articles, short communications, reviews, or mini-reviews on any topic related to plant mitochondria.

      Authors can submit their articles online at https://www.editorialmanager.com/jbsc/default2.aspx

      Posted on April 12, 2023
    • Editorial Note on Continuous Article Publication

      Posted on July 25, 2019

      Click here for Editorial Note on CAP Mode

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