Articles written in Journal of Biosciences
Volume 17 Issue 2 June 1992 pp 183-192
Light, besides initiating primary photochemical processes, alters the redox state of soluble components in chloroplast. The present review attempts to cover the mechanism of reductive photoactivation of enzymes of photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle using key enzymes as examples. The reduced soluble components — ferredoxin, thioredoxin and NADPH, in turn, cause the reduction of disulphides to dithiols of chloroplastic enzymes. NADP-malate dehydrogenase is subject to activation by light through changes in NADPH/NADP. The key enzyme of C4 photosynthesis-PEP carboxylase, though cytosolic, has been shown to be activated by disulphide/sulphhydryl interconversion by reductants generated in light through chloroplast electron transport flow. Pyruvate
Volume 20 Issue 1 January 1995 pp 35-47
Light, controls the “blueprint” for chloroplast development, but at high intensities is toxic to the chloroplast. Excessive light intensities inhibit primarily photosystem II electron transport. This results in generation of toxic singlet oxygen due to impairment of electron transport on the acceptor side between pheophytin and QB -the secondary electron acceptor. High light stress also impairs electron transport on the donor side of photosystem II generating highly oxidizing species Z+ and P680+. A conformationsl change in the photosystem II reaction centre protein Dl affecting its QB-binding site is involved in turning the damaged protein into a substrate for proteolysis.
The evidence indicates that the degradation of D1 is an enzymatic process and the protease that degrades D1 protein has been shown to be a serine protease Although there is evidence to indicate that the chlorophyll a-protein complex CP43 acts as a serine-type protease degrading Dl, the observed degradation of Dl protein in photosystem II reaction centre particles
In an oxygenic environment, Dl is cleaved from its N-and C-termini and the disassembly of the photosystem II complex involves simultaneous release of manganese and three extrinsic proteins involved in oxygen evolution. It is known that protein with PEST sequences are subject to degradation; D1 protein contains a PEST sequence adjacent to the site of cleavage on the outer side of thylakoid membrane between helices IV and V.
The molecular processes of “triggering” of Dl for proteolytic degradation are not clearly understood. The changes in structural organization of photosystem II due to generation of oxy-radicals and other highly oxidizing species have also not been resolved. Whether CP43 or a component of the photosystem II reaction centre itself (Dl. D2 or cy1 b559 subunits), which may be responsible for degradation of Dl, is also subject to light modification to become an active protease, is also not known. The identity of proteases degrading Dl, LHCII and CP43 and C29 remains to be established
Volume 21 Issue 4 June 1996 pp 527-533
The effect of high light on the acceptor side of photosystem II of chloroplasts and core particles of spinach was studied. Both