• T Subramoniam

      Articles written in Journal of Biosciences

    • Embryonic ecdysteroids in a mole crab,Emerita asiatica (Milne-Edwards)

      T Subramoniam R Tirumalai V Gunamalai K H Hoffmann

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      Using radioimmunoassay (RIA) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the presence of a complex mixture of free and conjugated ecdysteroids is reported in the embryonated eggs of a mole crab,Emerita asiatica. From an initial low value of 6.5 ng/g egg wet weight in stage I, the total ecdysteroids increased in concentration to 15.2 ng/g egg wet weight in stage III. This was followed by a sharp fall in stage IV, but again increased to 15.0 ng/g egg wet weight in stage VI. After a further decline in stage VII, the total ecdysteroids registered the highest value of 36.2 ng/g egg wet weight in stage VIII. This value, however, declined to a low level in the prehatching stage (IX). The concentration of the free ecdysteroids always predominated over the conjugated ones. The HPLC analysis of free ecdysteroids demonstrated the presence of 20-hydroxyecdysone and ecdysone in the ratio of 2.5. Purified lipovitellin II also contained free and conjugated ecdysteroids. The functional significance of the embryonic ecdysteroids as well as their nature of synthesis and storage within the eggs is discussed in the light of the information available on insect embryogenesis.

    • Origin and occurrence of sexual and mating systems in Crustacea: A progression towards communal living and eusociality

      T Subramoniam

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      Crustaceans are known for their unrivalled diversity of sexual systems, as well as peculiar mating associations to achieve maximum mating success and fertilization accomplishment. Although sexes are separate in most species, various types of hermaphroditism characterize these predominantly aquatic arthropods. A low operational sex ratio between female and male, together with temporally limited receptivity of females towards males, imposes restrictions on the structuring of mating systems in crustaceans. The basic mating systems consist of monogamy, polygamy, mate guarding and pure searching. Understandably, ecological influences may also play a determinative role in the evolution of such sexual and mating systems in crustaceans. An important outcome of the crustacean sexual biology is the development of complex social structures in many aquatic species, in much the same way insects have established them in terrestrial conditions. In addition, groups like isopods and certain families of brachyuran crabs have shown terrestrial adaptation, exhibiting peculiar reproductive modes, sometimes reminiscent of their terrestrial counterparts, insects. Many caridean shrimps, living in symbiotic relationship with other marine invertebrates in the coral reef habitats, have reached pinnacle of complexity in sexuality and peculiar mating behaviours, resulting in communal living and establishing advanced social systems, such as eusociality.

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