• T N Pattabiraman

      Articles written in Journal of Biosciences

    • Studies on plant gums. Role of calcium in polysaccharide-protein interaction in the neem (Azadirachta indica) gum

      B Ramakrishna Nayak B C Shenoy T N Pattabiraman

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      The partial removal of tightly bound Ca2+ from dialysed neem (Azadirachta indica) gum, resulted in the release of a basic protein from a highly anionic polysaccharide-protein complex as evidenced by chromatographic studies on TEAE-cellulose. Complete removal of Ca2+ caused, in addition, the release of a minor heteropolysaccharide which was found in association with the basic protein. These processes were reversed on the addition of Ca2+. The gum, in addition, contained a protein-rich component accounting for 35% protein and 7.5% total carbohydrate. This component behaved as a distinct entity during ion-exchange chromatography of the native gum solutions, or which were either partially or completely depleted of bound Ca2+.

    • Studies on plant gums. Proteases in neem (Azadirachta indica) gum

      B Ramakrishna Nayak N Mallikarjuna Rao T N Pattabiraman

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      Proteolytic activity was detected in neem (Azadirachta indica) exudate gum when tested with casein and albumin as substrates. The enzyme activity was separated into two fractions by chromatography on TEAE-cellulose after EDTA treatment. Both the enzyme fractions were fairly stable to high temperatures and wide range of pH conditions. The pH optima were found to be around 6.5. Phenylmethyl sulphonylfluoride inhibited the activity of both the fractions. EDTA, Β-mercaptoethanol, tosylamide phenylethylchloromethylketone, tosyllysine chloroimethylketone,p-chloromercuribenzoate and dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoie acid did not affect the activity of the two enzyme fractions. The two fractions had no hydrolytic action on a variety of synthetic substrates tested.

    • Enzyme inhibitors from plants: Enterokinase inhibitors in tubers and seeds

      P Gopalakrishna Bhat Raju Thomas Jacob T N Pattabiraman

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      Of the 22 tubers and 9 pulses screened for inhibitors of enterokinase activity, the following 12 tubers,Curcuma amada, Kyllinga monocephala, Solanum tuberosum, Canna indica, Helianthus tuberosus, Coleus parviformis, Mirabilis jalapa, Colocasia antiquorum (red variety),Alium cepa, Amorphophalus companulatus, Maranta arundinacea, Daucus carota, and 9 pulses namely,Vigna sinensis, Arachis hypogea, Pisum sativum, Phaseolus vulgaris (white bean),Phaseolus vulgaris (kidney bean),Phaseolus mungo, Cicer arietinum, Dolichos lablab and Cajonus cajan contained inhibitory activity. Three tubers,Amorphophalus companulatus, Maranta arundinacea andDaucus carota and all the nine pulses exhibited endogenous esterase activity towards benzoyl arginine ethyl ester. Among the 8 pulses and 3 tubers processed by affinity chromatography on trypsin-sepharose, to separate trypsin inhibitor from enterokinase inhibitor,Phaseolus vulgaris (kidney bean),Phaseolus vulgaris (white bean) andDolichos lablab contained distinct enterokinase inhibitors. These fractions were devoid of trypsin inhibitor activity. The trypsin inhibitor fromColeus parviformis tubers alone did not bind to trypsinsepharose and was recovered in the unbound fraction along with the enterokinase inhibitor.

    • Studies on the properties of the variants of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase in human urine

      K Rambabu T N Pattabiraman

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      Both the high molecular weight and the low molecular weight variants of urinary Y-glutamyl transpeptidase, displayed transpeptidase (pH optimum 8.6) and autotrans-peptidase (pH optimum 9.4) activities. Iodoacetamide inhibited the transpeptidase activity more efficiently than the autotranspeptidase activity with respect to both variants of Y-glutamyl transpeptidase. The high molecular weight form utilized L-glutamine as a better acceptor than L-cystine during the transpeptidation reaction whereas the reverse was the case with the low molecular weight variant. While phenylmethylsulphonyl fluoride-treated enzymes retained full activitiesper se, addition of maleic acid to the modified enzyme was found to inhibit the catalytic activities indicating a maleic acid-induced conformational change of the modified enzyme.

    • Enzyme inhibitors from plants. Isolation and characterization of a protease inhibitor from arrow root (Maranta arundinaceae) tuber

      N Mallikarjuna Rao H Nayana Rao T N Pattabiraman

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      A protease inhibitor from arrow root (Maranta arundinaceae) tuber has been isolated in a homogeneous form. The inhibitor has a Mr of 11,000-12,000; it inhibited bovine trypsin, bovine enterokinase, bovine α-chymotrypsin and the proteolytic activity of human and bovine pancreatic preparations. The inhibitor is resistant to pepsin, and elastase. It could withstand heat treatment at 100°C for 60 min and exposure to a wide range of pH (1.0–12.5) for 72 h at 4°C without loss of activity. Arginyl groups are essential for the action of the inhibitor. Preincubation of the inhibitor at pH 3.7 with trypsin or chymotrypsin caused nearly a two-fold increase in inhibitor potency

    • Proteases in germinating finger millet (Eleusine coracana) seeds

      U Vidyavathi B Shivaraj T N Pattabiraman

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      Proteolytic activity was estimated in germinated finger millet seedlings using the endogenous trypsin/amylase inhibitor as substrate and also with haemoglobin and albumin as substrates. The maximal proteolytic activity was observed on the third day of germination. With the inhibitor as substrate, the proteolytic activity was maximal at pH 2.5. The protease that acted on the inhibitor required sulphydryl groups for maximal activity and was suppressed by diazoacetyl norleucine methyl ester and Pepstatin. The protease that acted on haemoglobin with optimum pH of 5.0, was more stable on storage, did not depend on sulphydryl groups for activity and was unaffected by reagents that react with carboxyl groups.

    • Purification of bovine and porcine enterokinase by affinity chromatography with immobilized kidney bean enterokinase inhibitor

      Raju Thomas Jacob T N Pattabiraman

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      A specific enterokinase inhibitor isolated from kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) was immobilized on Affigel-10. Solubilized preparation of bovine and porcine enterokinases were bound to this matrix at pH 7.5 and the complex was dissociated by elution with l0 mM HCl, resulting in the isolation of the enzymes in homogeneous form as judged by gel chromatography on Sephadex G-200, and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. However, human enterokinase could not be purified by this method in sufficient yield since it did not bind strongly to the insolubilized inhibitor.

    • Purification and properties of an α-amylase inhibitor specific for human pancreatic amylase from proso (Panicium miliaceum) seeds

      R H Nagaraj T N Pattabiraman

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      An α-amylase inhibitor was purified to homogeneity by acid extraction, ammonium sulphate fractionation, chromatography on carboxymethyl-cellulose, diethylaminoethyl-cellulose and Sephadex G-100 from proso grains (Panicium miliaceum). The calculated molecular weight was 14000. The inhibitor was fairly heat stable and stable under acidic and neutral conditions. The factor was more effective by two orders of magnitude in its action on human pancreatic amylase than on human salivary amylase. It did not inhibit onA. oryzae,B. subtilis and porcine pancreatic amylases. Pepsin rapidly inactivated the inhibitor. Chemical modification studies revealed that amino and guanido groups are essential for the action of the inhibitor. The inhibitor was found to protect both human salivary and pancreatic amylases against inactivation by acid. The mode of inhibition was found to be uncompetitive

    • Are the proteinase inhibitory activities in lenticular tissues real?

      S Swaminathan T N Pattabiraman

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      The possibility of proteinase inhibitory activities in lenses measured with synthetic substrates being spurious, due to the effective competition of lens proteins as substrates for the target enzymes, was investigated. Goat, sheep and human cataractous lens proteins were found to be poor substrates for trypsin, elastase and papain compared to casein or bovine serum albumin. Further, the inhibition of elastase catalyzed hydrolysis of succinyl trialanyl p-nitroanilide by casein (500 μg, 53%) and albumin (500 μg, 49%) and of trypsin-catalyzed hydrolysis of benzoyl argininep-nitroanilide by albumin (1 mg, 24%) were significant only at high protein concentrations. These data indicated that the relatively high antielastase and antitryptic activities observed in human cataractous lenses were real. On the other hand, coincident lens protein hydrolysis elevating the true antitryptic and antielastase activities in goat and sheep lenses (that have low activities) could not be ruled out The lesser papain inhibitory activities observed in lenses when albumin was used as substrate compared to activities with benzoyl arginine p-nitroanilide as substrate, appeared to be partly due to lens protein hydrolysis masking the actual inhibition in the former method. Preincubation of goat, sheep and human lens extracts with trypsin for 1 h resulted in complete loss of antitryptic and antielastase activity except in the case of human lens antielastase activity which underwent 50% loss. Papain inhibitory activity was fully stable. Similar papain treatment caused loss of 80–100% of antielastase activity and 45–55% loss of antitryptic activity.

    • Protease inhibitors from jackfruit seed (Artocarpus integrifolia)

      A V Bhat T N Pattabiraman

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      Protease inhibitory activity in jackfruit seed (Artocarpus integrifolia) could be separated into 5 fractions by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose at pH 7.6. A minor fraction (I) that did not bind to the matrix, had antitryptic, antichymotryptic and antielastase activity in the ratio 24:1.9:1.0. Fraction II bound least tightly to the ion exchanger eluting with 0.05 M NaCl and could be resolved into an elastase/chymotrypsin inhibitor and a chymotrypsin/trypsin inhibitor by chromatography on either immobilized trypsin or phenyl Sepharose CL-4B. Fractions III and IV eluted successively with 0.10 M NaCl and 0.15 M NaCl from DEAE-cellulose, inhibited elastase, chymotrypsin and trypsin in the ratio 1.0: 0.53:0.55 and 1.0:8.9:9.8 respectively. Fraction V, most strongly bound to the matrix eluting with 0.3 M NaCl and was a trypsin/chymotrypsin inhibitor accounting for 74% of total antitryptic activity. This inhibitor was purified further. The inhibitor with a molecular weight of 26 kd was found to be a glycoprotein. Galactose, glucose, mannose, fucose, xylose, glucosamine and uronic acid were identified as constitutent units of the inhibitor. Dansylation and electrophoresis in the presence of mercaptoethanol indicated that the inhibitor is made up of more than one polypeptide chain. The inhibitor combined with bovine trypsin and bovine α-chymotrypsin in a stoichiometric manner as indicated by gel chromatography. It had very poor action on subtilisin BPN′, porcine elastase, pronase,Streptomyces caespitosus protease andAspergillus oryzae protease. It powerfully inhibited the caseinolytic activities of rabbit and horse pancreatic preparations and was least effective on human and pig pancreatic extracts. Modification of amino groups, guanido groups and sulphydryl groups of the inhibitor resulted in loss of inhibitory activity. Reduction of disulphide bridges, reduction with sodium borohydride and periodate oxidation also decreased the inhibitory activity.

    • Effect of king cobra venom on α2-macroglobulin and proteases in human blood plasma

      Maya Roche T N Pattabiraman

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      Normal human blood plasma showed hydrolytic activities on several synthetic substrates for proteases, the most effective being H-D-Ile-Pro-Arg-p-nitroanilide, H-D-Pro-Phe-Arg-p-nitroanilide and H-D-Val-Leu-Arg-p-nitroanilide. When plasma was preincubated for 12 h at 37°C, there was no significant alteration of the hydrolytic activities. On incubation for 12 h with king cobra venom (2 μg for 0.1 ml plasma), there was considerable decrease in the activities and complete abolition of the protease binding capacity of α2-macroglobulin. On chromatography on Sephadex G-200, α2-macroglobulin activity and bulk of the protease activity of normal plasma were eluted in the void volume region. A minor protease peak was eluted with aVe/Vo value of 2.5. With venom treated plasma, there was no decrease with this peak. The major protease peak and α2-macroglobulin activity were drastically reduced. Chromatography on red Sepharose showed that all the α2 acroglobulin activity and bulk of the protease activity in normal plasma were bound to the column. In venom treated plasma there was marked reduction in the bound fraction. The data suggest that cobra venom proteases directly or through proteases generated in plasmain situ causes limited cleavage of α2-macroglobulin as well as α2-macroglobulin bound proteases, inactivating them.

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