• T C Anand Kumar

      Articles written in Journal of Biosciences

    • Light microscopic features of the rete testis, the vas efferens, the epididymis and the vas deferens in the adult rhesus monkey

      Asha Prakash M R N Prasad T C Anand Kumar

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      The present study was carried out to determine the detailed histological and cytological features of the excurrent ducts of the male reproductive system in the rhesus monkey. The excurrent ducts show a regional difference in their histological features. The use of some of these features as histological markers and their possible functional significance are discussed.

      The epithelial cells in the different components of the excurrent duct system possess cytological features which suggest their involvement in absorption and the secretion of different products into the lumen.

    • Ultrastructural studies on the epididymal spermatozoa in the rhesus monkey

      Asha Prakash M R N Prasad T C Anand Kumar

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      Ultrastructural studies on the spermatozoa in different regions of the epididymis of the rhesus monkey have shown that the process of sperm maturation is associated with the caudad migration of the cytoplastmic droplet, a reduction in the volume of the cytoplasmic droplet, and an obvious wrinkling of the plasma membrane surrounding the head of the spermatozoa. These changes are completed by the time the spermatozoa reach the distal-middle segment of the epididymis. The present studies also indicate that spermatozoa are incorporated into the intraepithelial cells in the epidymis. This finding suggests that spermiophagy is a normal occurrence in the epidymis of rhesus monkey.

    • Ultrastractural features of the principal cell in the epididymis of the rhesus monkey

      T C Anand Kumar Asha Prakash M R N Prasad

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      The ultrastructural features of the principal cell in the epididymal epithelium of the monkey epididymis are suggestive of the cell carrying out a dual function of absorption and secretion. Both these functions occur on the luminal surface of the cell as well as on the lateral and basal aspects of the cell which face the intercellular spaces. Transmision Electron Microscopic studies of epididymal tissues following their impregnation with lanthanum nitrate indicated that the intercellular spaces are effectively sealed-off from the luminal space by the apically situated tight junctions between adjoining principal cells. The intercellular spaces are contiguous with the perivascular spaces of the subepithelial blood capillaries. It is suggested that the absorptive and secretory functions occuring on the apical surface of cells may be related to the creation of an appropriate intraluminal milieu for the maturation of spermatozoa while the occurrence of these functions in the intercellular spaces may represent an exchange of substances between the principal cells and the subepithelial capillaries.

    • An overview

      T C Anand Kumar

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    • Circadian and circannual changes in the testicular function of adult rhesus monkeys

      Atam Sehgal G F X David A K Dubey J S Pruthi T C Anand Kumar

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      The endocrine and gametogenic status of the testes were studied in 9 healthy adult rhesus monkeys of proven fertility throughout a one-year period. Testosterone levels were estimated by radioimmunoassay in blood samples collected at 4 h intervals over a 24 h period once a month. Semen samples and testicular biopsies were also examined once a month. A well-defined circandian rhythm was evident in serum levels of testosterone. The rhythmicity was less pronounced in February and September. The 24 h mean levels of serum testosterone were high between the months of August to March and low in the months of May to July. All animals did not uniformly respond to electro-ejaculation in April and May. Semen volume and total number of spermatozoa were maximal between September and March and least from April to August. Testicular biopsies indicated that all stages of spermatogenesis were evident between September and March and the spermatogenic activity was less evident between April and August. The contents of Sertoli cells showed a seasonal cyclicity; they were laden with lipid droplets during April to August when spermatogenesis was quiescent and vacuolated during September to March when spermatogenesis was active. These studies indicate that the testing of contraceptive drugs needs to be restricted to months of September to March in male rhesus monkeys otherwise, it is possible that the naturally occurring reproductive quiscence may be attributed to the effect of the drug being tested. The data accrued from the present studies also provide quantitative information on circulating levels of testosterone which could be used as a reference background while evaluating the contraceptive drug-effects in male rhesus monkeys.

    • Estimation of daily sperm production in rats and monkeys

      K Gopalkrishnan S Kholkute T C Anand Kumar

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      Daily sperm production in rats and monkeys were estimated by extended histometric method. Individual seminiferous tubules were separated, fixed, processed and embedded. Semi-thin sections were stained with toluidine blue and the different cell types quantitated with Chalkley’s eye piece. The daily sperm production estimated was compared with that obtained by the homogenization method. The results indicate that daily sperm production obtained by both the methods were comparable. The present histometric method has an added advantage of requiring very small amount of biopsy material to give precise daily sperm production estimations.

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