• Sushil Kumar

      Articles written in Journal of Biosciences

    • Type 1 fimbriation is negatively regulated by cyclic AMP and its receptor proteinvia conjugative plasmid F inEscherichia coli K-12

      Shambhavi Subbarao Nam Prakash A V Sivaprasad Sushil Kumar

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      Expression of fimbriation was studied inEscherichia coli K-12 CA8000 HfrH, and itscya, crp and MS2 resistant mutants. The cells of cya+ crp+ parent strain were observed to be flagellated bacilli, lacking fimbriae, unable to agglutinate erythrocytes and deficient in ability to produce surface pellicle during growth in stationary culture. The cells ofcya andcrp mutants were observed to be cocci or coccobacilli devoid of flagella, having haemagglutinating activity, fimbriated and capable of producing surface pellicle in stationary cultures. The fimbriation and haemagglutinating activities were lower incya mutants grown with cAMP supplementation. Thecya andcrp mutants produced relatively small, smooth and compact colonies consisting mostly of fimbriated cells, like those of earlier described Fimσ mutants. Thecya+ crp+ MS2 resistant mutant produced large sized colonies like those of parent but was deficient in conjugal donor ability. It resembledcya andcrp mutants in haemagglutinating and fimbriation properties. Thecya andcrp mutants have been earlier shown to be deficient in several Tra functions including conjugal donor ability. It is concluded thatEscherichia coli K-12 cells express fimbriation when Tra functions of F-plasmid carried in them are not expressed either due to deficiency of active cAMP-receptor protein complex or mutation in F-plasmid or when F-plasmid is absent.

    • Recessive monogenic mutation in grain pea (pisum sativum) that causes pyridoxine requirement for growth and seed production

      Sushil Kumar

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      A stable pyridoxine-deficient pea mutant was obtained by screening the M2 progeny of azide-treatedPisum sativum cv Pusa Harbhajan. The mutation is visible lethal. The isolation of pyridoxine-deficient mutant demonstrates directly that pea plants synthesize their own pyridoxine and that pyridoxine is an essential growth factor for pea plants. The mutant character is determined by homozygous recessive alleles, designatedpdx-1, at a single locus. Pyridoxine-deficient plants are fertile and indistinguishable from the wild type if supplied exogenously with 2 mg of pyridoxine.

    • High regenerative nature ofMentha arvensis internodes

      Ajit Kumar Shasany Suman P S Khanujia Sunita Dhawan Usha Yadav Srikant Sharma Sushil Kumar

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      Media and incubation conditions have been defined for highly efficient regeneration of shoots from internode explants of slow and fast growing cultivars ofMentha arvensis. Internodal segments excised from thein vitro raised shoots were inoculated on the MS medium supplemented with combinations of 5 concentrations of l-napthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 3 concentrations of 6-benzyl amino purine (BAP). The media containing 2 μg ml−1 NAA, 10 Μg ml−1 BAP and 1 μg ml−1 NAA, 5 μg ml−1 BAP proved best for shoot regeneration and growth responses on cv Himalaya and cv Kalka explants, respectively. In 12 weeks time, on average one explant of cv Himalaya produced about 200 shoots and that of cv Kalka produced about 180 shoots. The Himalaya explants required higher concentrations of NAA and BAP for high efficiency proliferation as compared to the Kalka explants. The experiments demonstrated that internodal tissue inMentha arvensis can be induced to obtain direct shoot regenerants with high efficiency. The analysis of the RAPD profiles of 100 regenerated plantlets each of cv Himalaya and Kalka showed more than 99.9% homogeneity in bands with respect to the parents.

    • Positive correlation between menthol content andin vitro menthol tolerance inMentha arvensis L. cultivars

      Ajit K Shasany Suman P S Khanuja Sunita Dhawan Sushil Kumar

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      Menthol is a highly valued monoterpene produced by Japanese mint (Mentha arvensis) as a natural product with wide applications in cosmetics, confectionery, flavours, beverages and therapeutics. Selection of high menthol yielding genotypes is therefore the ultimate objective of all genetic improvement programmes inMentha arvensis. A positive correlation was observed in the present study between menthol content in oils of evaluated genotypes and the level of tolerance to externally supplied menthol of explants of these genotypes in culture medium. The easy use of this relationship as a selectable biochemical marker opens the practical applicability of largescalein vitro screening of the germplasm, clones and breeders' material for selection of elite genotypes.

    • Pleiotropic morphological and abiotic stress resistance phenotypes of the hyper-abscisic acid producing Abo mutant in the periwinkleCatharanthus roseus

      Shashi Pandey Rai Rajesh Luthra Madan Mohan Gupta Sushil Kumar

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      The pleiotropic properties of aabo abo (Abo) γ-ray induced mutant ofCatharanthus roseuscv. Nirmal, selected among the M2 generation seeds for ability to germinate at 45°C, are described. The mutant produced seeds possessing tricotyledonous embryos, unlike the typically dicotyledonous embryos present in the wild type Abo+ seeds. In comparison to Abo+ adults, the mutant plants had short stature and lanceolate leaves. The vascular bundles in the leaves and stem were poorly developed. Leaf surfaces were highly trichomatous, epidermal, cortex and mesophyll cells were small sized and a large majority of stomata were closed. Besides high temperature, the mutant was salinity and water-stress tolerant. The abscisic acid (ABA) content in the leaves was about 500-fold higher. The genetic lesionabo responsible for the above pleiotropy was recessive and inherited in Mendelian fashion. The seedlings and adult plants of the mutant accumulated higher proline than Abo+ plants. The phenotypes ofabo abo mutants permitted the conclusions that (i) the mutant synthesizes ABA constitutively, (ii) both ABA-dependent and ABA independent pathways for proline and betaine accumulation are functional in the mutant, and (iii) cell division, elongation and differentiation processes in embryo and adult plant stages are affected in the mutant.

    • Role ofLLD, a new locus for leaflet/pinna morphogenesis inPisum sativum

      Seema Prajapati Sushil Kumar

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      Properties of a mutant at theLLD (LEAF-LET DEVELOPMENT) locus in peaPisum sativum L. are reported in this paper. Plants homozygous for the Mendelian recessive mutationlld bear leaves in which a few to many leaflets are incompletely developed. Opposite pinnae of rachis nodes often formed fused incompletely developed leaflets. Thelld mutation was observed to abort pinna development at almost all morphogenetic stages. Thelld mutation demonstrated high penetrance and low expressivity. The phenotypes oflld plants intl, tac, tl tac, tl af andtl af tac backgrounds suggested that LLD function is involved in the separation of lateral adjacent blastozones differentiated on primary, secondary and tertiary rachides and lamina development in leaflets. The aborted development of tendrils and leaflets inlld mutants was related to deficiency in vascular tissue growth. The morphological and anatomical features of the leaflets formed on atl lld double mutant permitted a model of basipetal leaflet development. The key steps of leaflet morphogenesis include origin of the lamina by splitting of a radially symmetrical growing pinna having abaxial outer surface, opposite to the vascular cylinder, through an invaginational groove, differentiation of adaxial surface along the outer boundary of split tissue in the groove and expansion of the lamina ridges so formed into lamina spans.

    • COCHLEATA controls leaf size and secondary inflorescence architecture via negative regulation of UNIFOLIATA (LEAFY ortholog) gene in garden pea Pisum sativum

      Vishakha Sharma Swati Chaudhary Arvind Kumar Sushil Kumar

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      UNIFOLIATA [(UNI) or UNIFOLIATA-TENDRILLED ACACIA (UNI-TAC)] expression is known to be negatively regulated by COCHLEATA (COCH) in the differentiating stipules and flowers of Pisum sativum. In this study, additional roles of UNI and COCH in P. sativum were investigated. Comparative phenotyping revealed pleiotropic differences between COCH (UNI-TAC and uni-tac) and coch (UNI-TAC and uni-tac) genotypes of common genetic background. Secondary inflorescences were bracteole-less and bracteolated in COCH and coch genotypes, respectively. In comparison to the leaves and corresponding sub-organs and tissues produced on COCH plants, coch plants produced leaves of 1.5-fold higher biomass, 1.5-fold broader petioles and leaflets that were 1.8-fold larger in span and 1.2-fold dorso-ventrally thicker. coch leaflets possessed epidermal cells 1.3-fold larger in number and size, 1.4-fold larger spongy parenchyma cells and primary vascular bundles with 1.2-fold larger diameter . The transcript levels of UNI were at least 2-fold higher in coch leaves and secondary inflorescences than the corresponding COCH organs. It was concluded that COCH negatively regulated UNI in the differentiating leaves and secondary inflorescences and thereby controlled their sizes and/or structures. It was also surmised that COCH and UNI (LFY homolog) occur together widely in stipulate flowering plants.

    • In silico -- based combinatorial pharmacophore modelling and docking studies of GSK-3𝛽 and GK inhibitors of Hippophae

      Sushil Kumar Middha Arvind Kumar Goyal Syed Faizan Nethramurthy Sanghmitra Bharat Chandra Asistha Talambedu Usha

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      Type 2 diabetes is an inevitably progressive disease, with irreversible 𝛽 cell failure. Glycogen synthase kinase and Glukokinase, two important enzymes with diverse biological actions in carbohydrate metabolism, are promising targets for developing novel antidiabetic drugs. A combinatorial structure-based molecular docking and pharmacophore modelling study was performed with the compounds of Hippophae salicifolia and H. rhamnoides as inhibitors. Docking with Discovery Studio 3.5 revealed that two compounds from H. salicifolia, viz Lutein D and an analogue of Zeaxanthin, and two compounds from H. rhamnoides, viz Isorhamnetin-3-rhamnoside and Isorhamnetin-7-glucoside, bind significantly to the GSK-3 𝛽 receptor and play a role in its inhibition; whereas in the case of Glucokinase, only one compound from both the plants, i.e. vitamin C, had good binding characteristics capable of activation. The results help to understand the type of interactions that occur between the ligands and the receptors. Toxicity predictions revealed that none of the compounds had hepatotoxic effects and had good absorption as well as solubility characteristics. The compounds did not possess plasma protein-binding, crossing blood–brain barrier ability. Further, in vivo and in vitro studies need to be performed to prove that these compounds can be used effectively as antidiabetic drugs.

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