The genome ofLeishmania donovani AG83, a virulent strain causing kala-azar, was resolved into 29 chromosomal bands by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (pFGE) under standardized conditions. Comparison of the karyotype with those of other strains and species revealed variations. By Southern hybridization, specific genes were localized to individual chromosomes. Twenty-two copies ofβ-tubulin genes are located on band 27 (1.63 Mb); minor copies are present in band 16 (850 kb) and band 9 (650 kb). Aβ-tubulin related nontranscribed locus was isolated from a genomic library and shown to contain repetitive sequences hybridizing throughout the genome. Single chromosomes contain multicopy clusters of gp63 and rnini-exon-derived RNA genes, but interspecific variations were observed in each case. The results emphasize the importance of using a standard reference strain ofLeishmania donovani for coordinated genome mapping of this clinically important organism.