• Seyed E Hasnain

      Articles written in Journal of Biosciences

    • Baculovirus vector-mediated expression of heterologous genes in insect cells

      P Sridhar A K Awasthi A A Azim S Burma S Habib A Jain B Mukherjee A Ranjan Seyed E Hasnain

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      The baculovirus expression system employingAutagrapha californica nuclear polyhidrosis virus andSpodoptera frugiperda insect cells in culture has proved very popular for high level expression of heterologous genes: In this system, transcription of the foreign gene is usually driven by the hyperactive and temporally regulated polyhedrin gene promoter. Replacement of the polyhedrin gene, which encodes a 29-kDa occlusion protein (non-essential for viral replication), with a gene of interest leads to an occlusion negative phenotype which serves as a visual marker to select for recombinant viruses. Simultaneous expression of multiple genes can also be achieved. The heterologous proteins synthesized in this system are antigenically, immunologically and functionally identical in most respects to their native counterparts. This mini-review will aim at summarizing the potentials and utility of the baculovirus expression vector system and will address some important questions relating to the biology of this system.

    • Invitro culturedSpodoptera frugiperda insect cells: Model for oxidative stress-induced apoptosis

      Seyed E Hasnain Tarvinder K Taneja Nand K Sah Manjari Mohan Niteen Pathak Sudhir Sahdev Mohammad Athar Satish M Totey Rasheedunnisa Begum

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      Cellular imbalance in the levels of antioxidants and reactive oxygen species (ROS) is directly associated with a number of pathological states and results in programmed cell death or apoptosis. We demonstrate the use ofin vitro culturedSpodoptera frugiperda (sf9) insect cells as a model to study oxidative stress induced programmed cell death. Apoptosis ofin vitro cultured sf9 cells was induced by the exogenous treatment of H2O2 to cells growing in culture. The AD50 (concentration of H2O2 inducing about 50% apoptotic response) varied with the duration of treatment, batch to batch variation of H2O2 and the physiological state of cells. At 24 h post-treatment with H2O2 AD50 was about 475 Μm. Apoptosis could also be induced byin situ generation of H2O2 by the inhibition of catalase activity upon hydroxylamine treatment. Hydroxylamine acted synergistically with H2O2 with an AD50 of 2.2 mM. DMSO, a free radical scavenger, inhibited H2O2-induced apoptosis thereby confirming the involvement of reactive oxygen species. Exposure of cells to UV radiation (312 nm) resulted in a dose-dependent induction of apoptosis. These results provide evidence on the novel use of insect cells as a model for oxidative stress-induced apoptosis.

    • Specificity of drug transport mediated byCaMDR1: A major facilitator ofCandida albicans

      Avmeet Kohli Vinita Gupta Shankarling Krishnamurthy Seyed E Hasnain Rajendra Prasad

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      CaMDR1 encodes a major facilitator superfamily (MFS) protein inCandida albicans whose expression has been linked to azole resistance and which is frequently encountered in this human pathogenic yeast. In this report we have overexpressed CaMdr1p inSf9 insect cells and demonstrated for the first time that it can mediate methotrexate (MTX) and fluconazole (FLC) transport. MTX appeared to be a better substrate for CaMdr1p among these two tested drugs. Due to severe toxicity of these drugs to insect cells, further characterization of CaMdr1p as a drug transporter could not be done with this system. Therefore, as an alternative, CaMdr1p and Cdr1p, which is an ABC protein (ATP binding cassette) also involved in azole resistance inC. albicans, were independently expressed in a common hypersensitive host JG436 ofSaccharomyces cerevisiae. This allowed a better comparison between the functionality of the two export pumps. We observed that while both FLC and MTX are effluxed by CaMdr1p, MTX appeared to be a poor substrate for Cdr1p. JG436 cells expressing Cdr1p thus conferred resistance to other antifungal drugs but remained hypersensitive to MTX. Since MTX is preferentially transported by CaMdr1p, it can be used for studying the function of this MFS protein.

    • Host-pathogen interactions during apoptosis

      Seyed E Hasnain Rasheeda Begum K V A Ramaiah Sudhir Sahdev E M Shajil Tarvinder K Taneja Manjari Mohan M Athar Nand K Sah M Krishnaveni

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      Host pathogen interaction results in a variety of responses, which include phagocytosis of the pathogen, release of cytokines, secretion of toxins, as well as production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recent studies have shown that many pathogens exert control on the processes that regulate apoptosis in the host. The induction of apoptosis upon infection results from a complex interaction of parasite proteins with cellular host proteins. Abrogation of host cell apoptosis is often beneficial for the pathogen and results in a successful host invasion. However, in some cases, it has been shown that induction of apoptosis in the infected cells significantly imparts protection to the host from the pathogen. There is a strong correlation between apoptosis and the host protein translation machinery: the pathogen makes all possible efforts to modify this process so as to inhibit cell suicide and ensure that it can survive and, in some cases, establish latent infection. This review discusses the significance of various pathways/steps during virus-mediated modulation of host cell apoptosis.

    • Indian herb ‘Sanjeevani’ (Selaginella bryopteris) can promote growth and protect against heat shock and apoptotic activities of ultra violet and oxidative stress

      Nand K Sah Shyam Nandan P Singh Sudhir Sahdev Sharmishta Banerji Vidyanath Jha Zakir Khan Seyed E Hasnain

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      Selaginella bryopteris is a lithophyte with remarkable ressurection capabilities. It is full of medicinal properties, hence also known as ‘Sanjeevani’ (one that infuses life). For lack of credible scientific evidence the plant is not in active use as a medicinal herb. We provide scientific evidence for whyS. bryopteris is known as ‘Sanjeevani’.

      The aqueous extract ofS. bryopteris possesses growth-promoting activity as well as protective action against stress-induced cell death in a number of experimental cell systems including mammalian cells. Treatment of the cells in culture with 10% aqueous extract enhanced cell growth by about 41% in Sf9 cells and 78% in mammalian cells. Pre-treatment of cells with the Selaginella extract (SE) (1-2x5%) protected against oxidative stress (H2O2)-induced cell death. The killing potential of ultra violet (UV) was also significantly reduced when the cells were pre-treated with SE for 1 h. Thermal radiation suppressed cell growth by about 50%. Pre-treatment of cells with SE for 1 h afforded complete protection against heat-induced growth suppression. SE may possess anti-stress and antioxidant activities that could be responsible for the observed effects. Chemical analysis shows that SE contains hexoses and proteins. Taken together,S. bryopteris extract may help in stress-induced complications including those due to heat shock.

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