Articles written in Journal of Biosciences
Volume 38 Issue 3 September 2013 pp 605-614 Reviews
Sensory stimulation has a critical role to play in the development of an individual. Environmental factors tend to modify the inputs received by the sensory pathway. The developing brain is most vulnerable to these alterations and interacts with the environment to modify its neural circuitry. In addition to other sensory stimuli, auditory stimulation can also act as external stimuli to provide enrichment during the perinatal period. There is evidence that suggests that enriched environment in the form of auditory stimulation can play a substantial role in modulating plasticity during the prenatal period. This review focuses on the emerging role of prenatal auditory stimulation in the development of higher brain functions such as learning and memory in birds and mammals. The molecular mechanisms of various changes in the hippocampus following sound stimulation to effect neurogenesis, learning and memory are described. Sound stimulation can also modify neural connectivity in the early postnatal life to enhance higher cognitive function or even repair the secondary damages in various neurological and psychiatric disorders. Thus, it becomes imperative to examine in detail the possible ameliorating effects of prenatal sound stimulation in existing animal models of various psychiatric disorders, such as autism.
Volume 39 Issue 1 March 2014 pp 107-117 Articles
Rhythmic sound or music is known to improve cognition in animals and humans. We wanted to evaluate the effects of prenatal repetitive music stimulation on the remodelling of the auditory cortex and visual Wulst in chicks. Fertilized eggs (0 day) of white leghorn chicken (
Volume 47 All articles Published: 13 December 2022 Article ID 0078 Article
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the most devastating injuries which causes either complete or partial loss of movement, balance, muscular coordination and endurance. Electromagnetic field (EMF) stimulation has been shown to reduce muscle atrophy and fiber-type switching and improves muscle function in a hindlimb suspension model. The present study aims to elucidate the therapeutic potential of EMF stimulation on motor neuron excitability, soleus muscle morphology and function in complete SCI rats. Thirty-six adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into Sham, SCI and SCI+EMF groups. Complete transection was done at the T13 spinal level, followed by whole-body EMF exposure for 7 or 14 days. Hyper-reflexia, muscle atrophy, reduction in twitch and tetanic force with earlier onset of fatigue was evident in the SCI group. EMF stimulation showed significant improvement in H and M wave parameters, H/M ratio, muscle twitch and tetanic force, fusion frequency and fatigability. A significant increase in regenerating myofibers and reduction in muscle degeneration following EMF was evident on histopathological examination. Further, EMF significantly increased myogenic protein levels responsible for muscle regeneration. Our study demonstrates for the first time the potential of EMF to modulate motor neuron excitability and muscle contractile function in SCI rats through activity-dependent mechanisms.
Volume 48, 2023
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