The bull seminal plasma peptides α andβ have been examined for their biological properties. While both the peptides were able to inhibit the human chorionic gonadotropin-dependent uterine response in the mouse, α alone exhibits the property of suppressing post-castrational rise in gonadotropin in appropriate animal models. This suggests that the peptideβ must be acting directly on the ovary to suppress estrogen production and, consequently, the uterine weight increase. Such a possibility was confirmed when α andβ were examined by the coupled bioassay which is capable of discriminating between pituitary feedback factors and those acting directly on the gonad. In a test system designed to examine chronic effects, both α andβ showed evidence of acting directly on the ovary to inhibit human menopausal gonadotropin-induced estrogen production. Such a direct action could not be correlated with the relative potencies of these peptides when examined for their follicle stimulating hormone-receptor binding inhibitor and lutinizing hormone-receptor binding inhibitor activities.