• S Duraiswami

      Articles written in Journal of Biosciences

    • Extra-gonadal secretion of an inhibin-like substance in the laboratory albino rat

      Kusum Kharbanda MeenaKumari S Mohapatra S Duraiswami

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      Acetone powder preparations of ventral prostates of adult albino rat exhibit an inhibin-like activity.In vitro cultured ventral prostate explants secrete a substance possessing similar activity which appears to be independent of testicular androgens for its elaboration.

    • A method for the isolation of intact Sertoli cell-germ cell associations from rat seminiferous tubules and their further partition into Sertol cell and germ cell fractions

      MeenaKumari S Duraiswami

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      A technique is described for obtaining a Sertoli cell-enriched and a germ cell-enriched fraction from immature rat testes. Sertoli cell-germ cell associations were obtained by incubating washed seminiferous tubule fragments with Collagenase and Pancreatin. They were then manually dissociated into a suspension comprising Sertoli cells as well as the various germ cell types characteristic for a given day of ontogeny. Fractionation into a Sertoli cell-enriched fraction and a germ cell-enriched fraction was effected by centrifugation following layering over a stepwise gradient of Ficoll-400. While the time-span compares favourably with other procedures reported in the literature, it is believed this is the first time a method is described that enables the simultaneous recovery of both the Sertoli cells and the germ cells.

    • Biological characteristics of the peptides α and β isolated from bovine seminal plasma

      S Chari S K Mohapatra S Duraiswami

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      The bull seminal plasma peptides α andβ have been examined for their biological properties. While both the peptides were able to inhibit the human chorionic gonadotropin-dependent uterine response in the mouse, α alone exhibits the property of suppressing post-castrational rise in gonadotropin in appropriate animal models. This suggests that the peptideβ must be acting directly on the ovary to suppress estrogen production and, consequently, the uterine weight increase. Such a possibility was confirmed when α andβ were examined by the coupled bioassay which is capable of discriminating between pituitary feedback factors and those acting directly on the gonad. In a test system designed to examine chronic effects, both α andβ showed evidence of acting directly on the ovary to inhibit human menopausal gonadotropin-induced estrogen production. Such a direct action could not be correlated with the relative potencies of these peptides when examined for their follicle stimulating hormone-receptor binding inhibitor and lutinizing hormone-receptor binding inhibitor activities.

    • Rat ventral prostate as an independent source of inhibin-like material

      Kusum Kharbanda S Duraiswami

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      Castration had no effect on prostatic inhibin-like activity as compared to normal controls. Consequent upon castration there is a significant reduction in the inhibin content of the ventral prostate on a per gland basis. However, when expressed as a function of protein content, there is no change. The data suggest that the very same epithelial cells which under the influence of androgen carry out the characteristic exocrine secretory activity are responsible for the synthesis and secretion of inhibin-like material.

    • Validation of coupled bioassay for inhibin by pituitary cell culture assay

      Sushma R Dhingra S Duraiswami Narender Kumar Lakshmi G Kumari

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      Studies on the characterization of inhibin and inhibin-like factors have depended for the most part on the classicalin vitro pituitary cell culture assay. A major drawback with this assay is the turn-around time which is in the order of two weeks and consequently slows down purification efforts. The 24 h bioassay for inhibin has been found to be sufficiently sensitive and also statistically valid. Unfortunately, based as it is on a secondary response, ambiguities arise in interpreting the results. By including a parallel assay in which the mice are primed with human menopausal gonadotropin rather than human chorionic gonadotropin, it was possible to device the coupled bioassay. This enables distinguishing inhibin-like factors acting to suppress pituitary follicle stimulating hormone output from those acting at the level of gonads. In this study the coupled assay for inhibin has been compared with the classical pituitary cell culture assay in order to assess its biological and statistical validity. The data validates the bioassay on both the above counts and when considered in conjunction with the short turn-around time suggests that this assay can be highly useful in studies on isolation of inhibin from various sources.

    • Role of follicle stimulating hormone in the induction of hyperplasia during compensatory ovarian hypertrophy

      Lakshmi Bhagat S Duraiswami G L Kumari

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      In adult rats, removal of one ovary leads to an acute albeit transient rise in serum follicle stimulating hormone and an increase in the weight of the remaining ovary. In an attempt to correlate the high titre of endogenous follicle stimulating hormone with the changes taking place at the macromolecular level, the phenomenon of compensatory ovarian hypertrophy was studied for one cycle after hemiovariectomy at metoestrus in the adult, cycling female rats derived from the Holtzman strain. The significant finding with respect to hormonal changes was an acute follicle stimulating hormone surge commencing 6h post-unilateral ovariectomy, reaching a maximum at 12 h and declining thereafter, hitherto not reported in the Holtzman strain. Serum luteinizing hormone, prolactin, oestradiol-17β and testosterone remained unaltered while progesterone showed a decline at 6 h after surgery. There was an increase in the number of healthy class III (> 350 µm) follicles with a concomitant drop in atretic class III follicles 24 h post-unilateral ovariectomy. Analysis for DNA, RNA and protein content showed that all three constituents registered a continuous rise in the hypertrophying ovary up to 120h after surgery. When expressed as ¼g/mg ovarian weight, the increase in DNA reached a maximum at 24 h and declined thereafter. The kinetics of DNA synthesis was followed by pulse labelling with [3H] thymidine at 18, 24, 36 and 48 h after unilateral ovariectomy. Maximum incorporation occurred at 36 h. Autoradiographic studies showed that the granulosa cells of healthy follicles preferentially incorporated the label. In an extension of this study, it was found that labelling index registered a significant increase following ovariectomy, the maximum being reached at 24 h especially in classIII follicles. The results clearly point out the crucial role of hyperplasia in the response of the contralateral ovary to the surgery and implicate the rise in follicle stimulating hormone as the primary signal for initiation of such a response. This raises the question whether in compensatory ovarian hypertrophy follicle stimulating hormone has a mitogenic role

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      Forthcoming Special issue.

    • To trigger further research on plant mitochondria, the Journal of Biosciences is bringing out a special issue titled "Plant Mitochondria: Properties and Interactions with Other Organelles".

      Plant mitochondria are quite distinct and have unique features, such as a cyanide-insensitive alternate pathway. They also interact with chloroplasts to optimize photosynthetic carbon assimilation.

      Submissions are welcome until 30 July 2023. The contributions can be original articles, short communications, reviews, or mini-reviews on any topic related to plant mitochondria.

      Authors can submit their articles online at https://www.editorialmanager.com/jbsc/default2.aspx

      Posted on April 12, 2023
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      Posted on July 25, 2019

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