• Robert M Clegg

      Articles written in Journal of Biosciences

    • Some physicochemical aspects of oligosaccharide binding to concanavalin A and wheat germ agglutinin

      Frank G Loontiens Robert M Clegg Anita Van Landschoot

      More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF

      The binding of fluorescently labelled carbohydrates to concanavalin A and wheat germ agglutinin was studied at equilibrium and by the stopped-flow and temperature jump relaxation methods. Ligand were mainly die 4-methylumbelliferyl glycosides of α (1 → 2)-linked manno-oligosaccharides and of β (1 → 4)-linked chito oligosaccharides as limited homologous series. They offer distinct advantages, parti cularly for kinetic studies.

      Enthalpie and kinetic considerations suggest that concanavalin A specifically binds a single mannopyranosyl group in α (1 →2)-linked manno-oligosaccharides. This occurs preferentially at the non-reducing end. Glycosylation of a carbohydrate withe.g. an aryl group does not afect die binding kinetics and for all carbohydrates the association rate is comparable but relatively slow, which indicates that a common process is involved in the binding of all carbohydrates to concanavalin A. The affinity of a carbohydrate for concanavalin A is determined by the dissociation-rate parameter, resulting in a longer residence time for a better ligand.

      Interaction of chito-oligosaccharides with wheat germ agglutinin is complex. With the larger members of the 4-methylumbelliferyl chito-oligosaccharides, binding studies were only possible at low fractional saturation to avoid formation of unsoluble complexes. The binding kinetics of wheat germ agglutinin are faster than with concanavalin A and are consistent with a wheat germ agglutinin binding region composed of two adjacent subsites. For binding of the monoside as well as the bioside, two consistent kinetic models apply. They have common that for each ligand there exist two complexes with comparable population.

    • Physicochemical aspects of carbohydrate binding to some plant lectins with binding preference forN-acetylgalactosamine and galactose

      Frank G Loontiens Hilde De Boeck Robert M Clegg

      More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF

      This contribution illustrates the advantages of some chromophoric and fluorophoric carbohydrate derivatives such asp-nitrophenyl (pNO2Phe) or 4-methylumbelliferyl (MeUmb) glycosides andN-dansylgalactosamine in studies of the binding equilibrium and kinetics with some plant lectins. The methods used involve continuous titrations of changes in ligand or protein absorption and ligand fluorescence, including substitution titrations as well as stopped-flow, temperature-jump or pressure-jump relaxation kinetics.

      When monitored by temperature-jump relaxation, binding of MeUmbαGal to the bloodgroup A specific lectin GSAI-A4 fromGriffonia simplicifolia is a simple bimolecular association with parametersk+= 9.4 × 104 M-1 s-1 andk-1 = 5.3 s-1 at 23°C, but binding to the GSAI-B4 lectin is biphasic.

      The complementarity of the peanut agglutinin binding site with Galβ1 → 3GalNAc that occurs in manyO-glycoproteins follows from enthalpic considerations and also from the value of the dissociation-rate parameterk-1 = 0.24 s-1 of the MeUmbβGalβl → 3GalNAc.lectin complex. This value, obtained by stopped-flow kinetics is 100 times smaller than for other mono-and disaccharides investigated. The binding mechanism is simple and the derivatisation of Galβ1 → 3GalNAc does not affect the affinity to a considerable degree.

      The binding preference of tetravalentsoybean agglutinin for MeαGalNAc over MeαGal by a factor of 25 is mainly of enthalpic origin with an additional 7 kJ mol-1; the NAc group causes perturbation of a tryptophanyl residue, evidenced by protein difference absorption spectrometry. In the glycosides, a large aglycon likeβpNO2 Phe orβMeUmb hardly affects the affinity of SBA but a largeN-dansyl group increases the affinity by a factor 20 as compared to GalNAc. The 10-fold increase in carbohydrate-specificN-dansylgalactosamine fluorescence, together with a very favourable entropic contribution point at the presence of a hydrophobic region in the vicinity of the carbohydrate-binding site. The dissociation-rate parameter of the MeUmbβGalNAc SBA complex is slower than for any reported monosaccharide-lectin complex: 0.4 s-1.

      The divalent lectin fromErythrina cristagalli preferentially binds the Galβ1 → 4GlcNAc structure that occurs in manyN-glycoproteins. The combining site was mapped thermodynamically with carbohydrates ranging from mono-to pentasaccharides as derived fromN-glycoproteins. Here, N-dansylgalactosamine was used as a fluorescent indicator ligand in substitution titrations. When Galβ1 → 4GlcNAc was linkedα1 → 2 orα1 → 6 to Man, the binding enthalpy and entropy remained practically constant. Application of stopped flow kinetics and pressure-jump relaxation withN-dansylgalactosamine gave mono-exponential signal changes with a concentration dependence corresponding tok+ = 4.8 x 104 M-1 s-1k- = 0.4 to 0.66 s-1 and a change in reaction volume of+7ml/mol.

  • Journal of Biosciences | News

    • Editorial Note on Continuous Article Publication

      Posted on July 25, 2019

      Click here for Editorial Note on CAP Mode

© 2017-2019 Indian Academy of Sciences, Bengaluru.