• Rashna Bhandari

      Articles written in Journal of Biosciences

    • Analysis of CAG/CTG triplet repeats in the human genome: Implication in transcription factor gene regulation

      Rashna Bhandari Samir K Brahmachari

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      Instability and polymorphism at several CAG/CTG trinucleotide repeat loci have been associated with human genetic disorders. In an attempt to identify novel sites that may be possible loci for expansion of CAG/CTG repeats, we searched all human sequences in the EMBL nucleotide sequence database for (CAG)5 and (CTG)5 repeats. We have identified 121 human DNA sequences of known and unknown functions that contain stretches of five or more CAG or CTG repeats. Many repeat stretches were interrupted by variant triplets, a significant number of which differ from the repeat triplet only by a single base, suggesting that these evolved from the parent triplet by point mutations. A large number of human transcription factor genes were found to contain CAG repeats within their coding sequences. Analysis of the EMBL transcription factors database showed that many transcription factor genes of other eukaryotes, including genes involved inDrosophila embryo development, possess these repeats. Interestingly, CAG repeats are absent from prokaryotic transcription factors. Different sequence entries for the human TATA box binding protein showed a polymorphism in the length of the CAG repeat in this gene, suggesting that loci other than those already known to be associated with genetic diseases may be possible sites for repeat instability related disorders. On the basis of our findings in this database analysis, we propose a role for CAG repeats as cisacting regulatory elements involved in fine-tuning gene expression.

    • Tyrosine phosphorylation of the human guanylyl cyclase C receptor

      Rashna Bhandari Roy Mathew K Vijayachandra Sandhya S Visweswariah

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      Tyrosine phosphorylation events are key components of several cellular signal transduction pathways. This study describes a novel method for identification of substrates for tyrosine kinases. Co-expression of the tyrosine kinase EphB1 with the intracellular domain of guanylyl cyclase C (GCC) inEscherichia coli cells resulted in tyrosine phosphorylation of GCC, indicating that GCC is a potential substrate for tyrosine kinases. Indeed, GCC expressed in mammalian cells is tyrosine phosphorylated, suggesting that tyrosine phosphorylation may play a role in regulation of GCC signalling. This is the first demonstration of tyrosine phosphorylation of any member of the family of membrane-associated guanylyl cyclases.

    • The emerging roles of inositol pyrophosphates in eukaryotic cell physiology

      Swarna Gowri Thota Rashna Bhandari

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      Inositol pyrophosphates are water soluble derivatives of inositol that contain pyrophosphate or diphosphate moieties in addition to monophosphates. The best characterised inositol pyrophosphates, are IP7 (diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate or PP-IP5), and IP8 (bisdiphosphoinositol tetrakisphosphate or (PP)2-IP4). These energy-rich small molecules are present in all eukaryotic cells, from yeast to mammals, and are involved in a wide range of cellular functions including apoptosis, vesicle trafficking, DNA repair, osmoregulation, phosphate homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, immune signalling, cell cycle regulation, and ribosome synthesis. Identified more than 20 years ago, there is still only a rudimentary understanding of the mechanisms by which inositol pyrophosphates participate in these myriad pathways governing cell physiology and homeostasis. The unique stereochemical and bioenergetic properties these molecules possess as a consequence of the presence of one or two pyrophosphate moieties in the vicinity of densely packed monophosphates are likely to form the molecular basis for their participation in multiple signalling and metabolic pathways. The aim of this review is to provide first time researchers in this area with an introduction to inositol pyrophosphates and a comprehensive overview on their cellular functions.

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