• Rajiva Raman

      Articles written in Journal of Biosciences

    • Inactivation of mammalian X-chromosome during spermatogenesis: Temporal expression of genes in the laboratory mouse

      Parimal Das Rajiva Raman

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      At zygotene/pachytene stage of meiosis in mammalian testis, the X—Y heterobivalent is sequesterd into a heterochromatinized body whose genetic inactivity is shown by lack of uridine incorporation. For the genic level evaluation of the X-inactivation, activities of three X-linked genes were assayed in testicular cell types in the laboratory mouse. While hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase is functional at least up to pachytene stage of primary spermatocytes, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase appears to be active only in the Sertoli cells. No transcript of the muscle specific muscular dystrophin gene was obtained from its regular 5′ promoter. Thus, inactivation of X-linked genes in testis occurs at different stages during spermatogenesis, independently of heterochrornatinizati on of the XY-body. We propose that Xist transcript, the putative regulator of X-inactivation in female soma, is also the regulator in testis. However, due to its extremely low level in testis the transcript may regulate by “spreading” in a gradient and affect the genes in a temporal order. Thus, besides other factors, physical proximity of the genes to Xist may determine the stage of their inactivation.

    • Lower incidence of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate in females: Is homocysteine a factor?

      Priyanka Kumari Akhtar Ali Krishna K Sukla Subodh K Singh Rajiva Raman

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      In India, as in other parts of the world, nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL±P) is a highly prevalent birth defect, its incidence in males being twice that in females. A case–control association study has been carried out with respect to homocysteine level and MTHFR C677T, A1298C and SLC19A1 (RFC1) G80A genotypes from an eastern Indian cohort to investigate whether Hcy and other Hcy-pathway genes also contribute to the risk level. While MTHFR 677T and SLC19A1 80G are individually and cumulatively risk factors, SLC19A1 80A appears to be protective against MTHFR 677T risk allele. Elevated Hcy associates with NSCL±P both in case mothers and cases. Significantly, this difference shows a gender bias: the level of elevation of Hcy in female cases is distinctly higher than in males, and more case females are hyperhomocyteinemic than the case males. It implies that compared with the males, higher level of Hcy is needed for NSCL±P to manifest in the females. We consider this as one of the possible factors why the incidence of this disorder in females is much lower than in males.

    • Diversity of sickle cell trait in Jharkhand state in India: Is it the zone of contact between two geographically and ethnically distinct populations in India?

      Rachana Nagar Rajiva Raman

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      Incidence of sickle cell trait in India is high in peninsular south, south-eastern, central and south-western India, while in north and north-eastern India, it is absent. Unicentric origin of SCD in the tribals of nilgiri hills in southern India has been proposed. The present study on the frequency of HbS trait and 𝛽-globin gene haplotypes was conducted in the tribal-rich states of Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand to get an insight into the uneven distribution of HbS in India. Jharkhand borders with the HbS-high Odisha and Chhattisgarh, and HbS-low UP, Bihar and Bengal. Cellulose acetate gel electrophoresis was performed on the collected blood samples, to detect sickle haemoglobin (HbS) followed by DNA analysis. HbS associated 𝛽-gene haplotype was constructed for the samples positive for HbS and all the tribals by PCR-RFLP. Out of 805 (Chhattisgarh – 261, Jharkhand – 544; >36% tribals) samples analysed HbS frequency was 13% in Chhattisgarh and 3.3% in Jharkhand. Within Jharkhand, frequencies varied considerably from 10% in Tatanagar to nil in Sahibganj. The Arab-India (AI) haplotype of 𝛽-globin cluster occurred in low frequency, confined mainly to Chhattisgarh. The most abundant haplotype in all the populations was the East Asian, + − − − − − +, rare in HbS, mainly in Sahibganj in east Jharkhand, which lacked AI. Our results indicate that besides the heterozygote advantage againstmalaria, the uneven regional distribution of HbS trait is because of restricted movement of two different populations, Dravidian from the south and Tibeto-Burman from the east into the Indianmainland which failed tomeet, we conjecture, due to severe climatic conditions (deserts and heat) prevailing through parts of central India. Apparently, Jharkhand became a zone of contact between them in recent times.

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