• Rajiv K Saxena

      Articles written in Journal of Biosciences

    • Identification and partial purification of a human natural killer cell proliferation-inducing factor

      Queen B Saxena Rajiv K Saxena Ronald H Goldfarb Ronald B Herberman Theresa L Whiteside

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      Culture supernatants of Concanavalin A activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were found to contain a factor which induced proliferative response in normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. This proliferation-inducing factor specifically induced and sustained proliferation of purified human NK cells but not of T or B cells. Although interleukin 2 (IL12) also has proliferation-inducing effects on NK cells, the partially purified proliferationinducing factor preparations contained no measurable IL2 contamination. Moreover, neutralizing anti-IL2 antibodies did not block the growth effect of proliferation-inducing factor on purified human NK cells. Other cytokines which were tested, including IL4, IL6, IL7, IL12, TNF and IFN, were all found to be inactive in the proliferation-inducing factor assay. While proliferation-inducing factor by itself had no effect on T-cell proliferation, IL2-induced proliferation of T cells was significantly enhanced in the presence of proliferation-inducing factor, as was IL2-induced NK-cell proliferation. NK cells could be maintained in culture for at least a month in the presence of proliferation-inducing factor alone, but the cells lost their cytolytic activity after 3–4 weeks in culture. Addition of IL2, to NK cells which had been cultured in the presence of proliferation-inducing factor, restored their cytotoxicity. Proliferation-inducing factor activity was partially purified on an anion exchange HPLC column. The molecular weight of proliferation-inducing factor appeared to be about 10 kDa, based on its elution profile on a sizing HPLC column. Our results indicate that proliferation-inducing factor is a novel NK-cell proliferationinducing factor.

    • Missing self by heterogeneous natural killer cells

      Rajiv K Saxena

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      Some murine (YAC, P815 and SP20) and human (Molt4, Raji and HR7) tumour cell lines were (i) treated with IFN-γ for inducing enhanced expression of MHC class I antigen, or (ii) given a brief treatment with citrate buffer (pH 3.0), which resulted in denaturation of class I MHC antigens on these tumour cells. IFL-γ or acid treated tumour cells were used as unlabelled competing targets in cold target inhibition assays. The results indicated that the competing ability of acid-treated tumour cells remained unaltered, whereas IFN-γ treated tumour cells competed with significantly less efficiency. These results have been evaluated in light of the current view of NK cell development and the expression of inhibitory receptors for MHC class I molecules (IRMs), on NK cells. A modified view on NK cell heterogeneity based upon IRM expression has been proposed which reconciles several apparently discordant observations about the activity and role of NK cells. Two classes of NK cells have been proposed. Type I NK ceils have target recognition receptors which do not recognize autologous normal cells, lack IRMs, and may participate in first line of defence against transformed cellsin vivo. Type II NK cells have target recognition receptors for autologous normal cells and express at least one self-reactive IRM in order to prevent auto-killing. Type II NK cells participate in killing those transformed cells which down-regulate their MHC class I expression in order to escape cytotoxic T-cell surveillance. It is also postulated that mechanism of inverse correlation of target cell MHC class I expression levels and their susceptibility to NK cells, involves interference model of missing self hypothesis for type I NK cells and inhibitory signal model of missing self hypothesis for type II NE cells. Finally, it is proposed that acid treatment of tumour cells enhances their lysis susceptibility by making them additionally susceptible to type II NK cells, rather than enhancing their killing by type I NK cells. This proposition would explain the lack of effect of acid treatment on the competing ability of tumour cells, when target cells are only lysed by type I NE cells.

    • CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotides as new generation adjuvants in DNA and protein vaccines

      Rajiv K Saxena Saubiya M Siddiqui Renee M Borges

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    • Should erythrocyte destructionin vivo be through phagocytosis alone?

      Rajiv K Saxena

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    • Murine model of BCG lung infection: Dynamics of lymphocyte subpopulations in lung interstitium and tracheal lymph nodes

      Rajiv K Saxena David Weissman Janet Simpson Daniel M Lewis

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      C57B1/6 female mice were infected with an intrapulmonary dose of 2.5 × 104 BCG(Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin). Lymphocyte populations in lung interstitium and lung-associated tracheal lymph nodes (LN) were examined at 1,2, 4, 5, 6, 8 and 12 weeks after infection. BCG load in lungs peaked between 4–6 weeks post-infection and declined to very low levels by the 12th week of infection. Lung leukocytes were obtained over the course of infection by enzyme digestion of lung tissue followed by centrifugation over Percoll discontinuous density gradients. By 4 to 6 weeks after infection, numbers of lung leukocytes had more than doubled but the proportions of lymphocytes (about 70%), macrophages (about 18%) and granulocytes (about 12%) remained essentially unaltered. Flow cytometric studies indicated: (i) the total number of CD3+ T cells in lungs increased by 3-fold relative to uninfected controls at 5 to 6 weeks post-infection, but the relative proportions of CD4 and CD8 cells within the T cell compartment remained unaltered; (ii) relative proportion of NK cells in lungs declined by 30% but the total number of NK cells (NK1.1+) per lung increased by about 50%, 5–6 weeks post infection; (iii) tracheal LN underwent marked increase in size and cell recoveries (6-10-fold increase) beginning 4 weeks after infection. While both T and B cells contributed to the increase in cell recoveries from infected tracheal LNs, the T/B ratio declined significantly but CD4/CD8 ratio remained unaltered. In control mice, IFNγ producing non-T cells outnumbered T cells producing IFNγ. However, as the adaptive response to infection evolves, marked increase occur in the number of IFNγ producing T cells, but not NK cells in the lungs. Thus, T cells are the primary cell type responsible for the adaptive IFNγ response to pulmonary BCG infection. Few T cells in tracheal LN of BCG infected mice produce IFNγ, suggesting that maturational changes associated with migration to the lungs or residence in the lungs enhance the capability of some T cells to produce this cytokine

    • Preface

      Val Vallyathan Rajiv K Saxena Vince Castranova

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    • Evidence for lipopolysaccharideinduced differentiation of RAW264.7 murine macrophage cell line into dendritic like cells

      Rajiv K Saxena Val Vallyathan Daniel M Lewis

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      Effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on RAW264.7 macrophage cell line was studied. LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells increased in cell size and acquired distinct dendritic morphology. At the optimal dose of LPS (1 μg/ml), almost 70% RAW264.7 cells acquired dendritic morphology. Flow cytometric studies indicate that the cell surface markers known to be expressed on dendritic cells and involved in antigen presentation and T cell activation (B7.1, B7.2, CD40, MHC class II antigens and CD1d) were also markedly upregulated on LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells. Our results suggest the possibility that LPS by itself could constitute a sufficient signal for differentiation of macrophages into DC-like cells.

    • Age-dependent increase in green autofluorescence of blood erythrocytes

      Sanjay Khandelwal Rajiv K Saxena

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      Green auto-fluorescence (GAF) of different age groups of mouse blood erythrocytes was determined by using a double in vivo biotinylation (DIB) technique that enables delineation of circulating erythrocytes of different age groups. A significant increase in GAF was seen for erythrocytes of old age group (age in circulation > 40 days) as compared to young erythrocytes (age < 15 days). Erythrocytes are removed from blood circulation by macrophages in the reticulo-endothelial system and depletion of macrophages results in an increased proportion of aged erythrocytes in the blood. When mice were depleted of macrophages for 7 days by administration of clodronate loaded liposomes, the overall GAF of erythrocytes increased significantly and this increase could be ascribed to an increase in GAF of the oldest population of erythrocytes. Using the DIB technique, the GAF of a cohort of blood erythrocyte generated during a 5 day window was tracked in vivo. GAF of the defined cohort of erythrocytes remained low till 40 days of age in circulation and then increased steeply till the end of the life span of erythrocytes. Taken together our results provide evidence for an age dependent increase in the GAF of blood erythrocytes that is accentuated by depletion of macrophages. Kinetics of changes in GAF of circulating erythrocytes with age has also been defined.

    • Age-dependent increase in green autofluorescence of blood erythrocytes

      Sanjay Khandelwal Rajiv K Saxena

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      Green auto-fluorescence (GAF) of different age groups of mouse blood erythrocytes was determined by using a double in vivo biotinylation (DIB) technique that enables delineation of circulating erythrocytes of different age groups. A significant increase in GAF was seen for erythrocytes of old age group (age in circulation > 40 days) as compared to young erythrocytes (age < 15 days). Erythrocytes are removed from blood circulation by macrophages in the reticulo-endothelial system and depletion of macrophages results in an increased proportion of aged erythrocytes in the blood. When mice were depleted of macrophages for 7 days by administration of clodronate loaded liposomes, the overall GAF of erythrocytes increased significantly and this increase could be ascribed to an increase in GAF of the oldest population of erythrocytes. Using the DIB technique, the GAF of a cohort of blood erythrocyte generated during a 5 day window was tracked in vivo. GAF of the defined cohort of erythrocytes remained low till 40 days of age in circulation and then increased steeply till the end of the life span of erythrocytes. Taken together our results provide evidence for an age dependent increase in the GAF of blood erythrocytes that is accentuated by depletion of macrophages. Kinetics of changes in GAF of circulating erythrocytes with age has also been defined.

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