• Rajesh Luthra

      Articles written in Journal of Biosciences

    • Pleiotropic morphological and abiotic stress resistance phenotypes of the hyper-abscisic acid producing Abo mutant in the periwinkleCatharanthus roseus

      Shashi Pandey Rai Rajesh Luthra Madan Mohan Gupta Sushil Kumar

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      The pleiotropic properties of aabo abo (Abo) γ-ray induced mutant ofCatharanthus roseuscv. Nirmal, selected among the M2 generation seeds for ability to germinate at 45°C, are described. The mutant produced seeds possessing tricotyledonous embryos, unlike the typically dicotyledonous embryos present in the wild type Abo+ seeds. In comparison to Abo+ adults, the mutant plants had short stature and lanceolate leaves. The vascular bundles in the leaves and stem were poorly developed. Leaf surfaces were highly trichomatous, epidermal, cortex and mesophyll cells were small sized and a large majority of stomata were closed. Besides high temperature, the mutant was salinity and water-stress tolerant. The abscisic acid (ABA) content in the leaves was about 500-fold higher. The genetic lesionabo responsible for the above pleiotropy was recessive and inherited in Mendelian fashion. The seedlings and adult plants of the mutant accumulated higher proline than Abo+ plants. The phenotypes ofabo abo mutants permitted the conclusions that (i) the mutant synthesizes ABA constitutively, (ii) both ABA-dependent and ABA independent pathways for proline and betaine accumulation are functional in the mutant, and (iii) cell division, elongation and differentiation processes in embryo and adult plant stages are affected in the mutant.

    • Sucrose mobilization in relation to essential oil biogenesis during palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii Roxb. Wats. var.motia) inflorescence development

      Vinod Shanker Dubey Ritu Bhalla Rajesh Luthra

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      Palmarosa inflorescence with partially opened spikelets is biogenetically active to incorporate [U-14C]sucrose into essential oil. The percent distribution of14C-radioactivity incorporated into geranyl acetate was relatively higher as compared to that in geraniol, the major essential oil constituent of palmarosa. At the partially opened spikelet stage, more of the geraniol synthesized was acetylated to form geranyl acetate, suggesting that majority of the newly synthesized geraniol undergoes acetylation, thus producing more geranyl acetate.In vitro development of palmarosa inflorescence, fed with [U-14C]sucrose, resulted in a substantial reduction in percent label from geranyl acetate with a corresponding increase in free geraniol, thereby suggesting the role of an esterase in the production of geraniol from geranyl acetate. At time course measurement of14CO2 incorporation into geraniol and geranyl acetate substantiated this observation. Soluble acid invertase was the major enzyme involved in the sucrose breakdown throughout the inflorescence development. The activities of cell wall bound acid invertase, alkaline invertase and sucrose synthase were relatively lower as compared to the soluble acid invertase. Sucrose to reducing sugars ratio decreased till fully opened spikelets stage, concomitant with increased acid invertase activity and higher metabolic activity. The phenomenon of essential oil biosynthesis has been discussed in relation to changes in these physiological parameters.

    • An overview of the non-mevalonate pathway for terpenoid biosynthesis in plants

      Vinod Shanker Dubey Ritu Bhalla Rajesh Luthra

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      Terpenoids are known to have many important biological and physiological functions. Some of them are also known for their pharmaceutical significance. In the late nineties after the discovery of a novel non-mevalonate (non-MVA) pathway, the whole concept of terpenoid biosynthesis has changed. In higher plants, the conventional acetate-mevalonate (Ac-MVA) pathway operates mainly in the cytoplasm and mitochondria and synthesizes sterols, sesquiterpenes and ubiquinones predominantly. The plastidic non-MVA pathway however synthesizes hemi-, mono-, sesqui- and di-terpenes, along with carotenoids and phytol chain of chlorophyll. In this paper, recent developments on terpenoids biosynthesis are reviewed with respect to the non-MVA pathway.

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      Forthcoming Special issue.

    • To trigger further research on plant mitochondria, the Journal of Biosciences is bringing out a special issue titled "Plant Mitochondria: Properties and Interactions with Other Organelles".

      Plant mitochondria are quite distinct and have unique features, such as a cyanide-insensitive alternate pathway. They also interact with chloroplasts to optimize photosynthetic carbon assimilation.

      Submissions are welcome until 30 July 2023. The contributions can be original articles, short communications, reviews, or mini-reviews on any topic related to plant mitochondria.

      Authors can submit their articles online at https://www.editorialmanager.com/jbsc/default2.aspx

      Posted on April 12, 2023
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      Posted on July 25, 2019

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