The transport of α-methyl-D-glucoside and two aminoacids, L-phenylalanine and L-leucine by a temperature sensitive fatty acid requiring mutant ofSalmonella typhimurium was studied under conditions of supplementation withcis or trans-unsaturated fatty acids. The results of such experiments definitely establish a relationship between the fatty acids composition of the membrane and the transport property of the cells. Cells grown in the presence of trans-unsaturated fatty acids cannot transport so efficiently as compared to the cis-unsaturated fatty acid-grown cells except linolelaidic acid, atrans-trans-unsaturated fatty acid. Protein: phospholipid ratio of the membrane also varies significantly under such conditions. The affinity of L-phenylalanine transport carrier for the substrate changes remarkably in cells grown in the presence of differentcis or trans-unsaturated fatty acids and indicate the possible role of membrane lipids in membrane assembly as well as regulation of the activity of L-phenylalanine transport system.